Sunflower District Tournament

2018 — KS/US

Adam Akins Paradigm

4 rounds

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John Andra Paradigm

6 rounds

I am a tabula rasa debate judge. I generally accept any argument regarding the aims and methods of academic debate. Many people say this is not possible, and if you also believe that, then make the argument and I'll listen to it.

I will not consider attacks on the bases of rational discourse itself, such as whether a thing can both be and not be in the same time and manner, or whether a whole is composed of its parts. These insights, intrinsic to human reason, must be assumed to argue towards any conclusion.

I also assume that policy debate is an educational activity concerning public policy. This typically limits the discussion to the laws, regulations, and customs of society. Purely speculative philosophical discussion does not reach the level of public policy unless that link is established during the round. Arguments on debate theory should relate to the policy question or to the educational aims of debate.

With respect to speed, I believe debate is a speech activity. I do not read speeches flashed to me beforehand, although I may ask to look at evidence after a round. I therefore need to understand what is being said. I tend to understand if the arguments are articulated clearly, with good signposting, at less than 350 wpm.

Zac Angleton Paradigm

4 rounds

derby debate coach. debated at campus for 4 years and 1 year in college.

LD: value criterion debate is the most important, each debate should say something along the lines i achieve my V/C as well as access my opponents value better. if the V/C debate goes unaddressed by both sides i default to who spoke prettier. your case should support your V/C case debate is import in disproving your opponent cant access V/C. that being said if the V/C debate is close/even i will then look evaluate the case.

PFD: very traditional this isn't policy, dis ads plan text ks are a quick way to lose my ballot. i prefer a slightly above conversations speed level.

T-aff should be topical, if neg runs T i feel like it should be all in T or no T in 2nr at all. neg needs to impact t out and weigh it also just saying they arn't topical they lose is not okay explain why topically is bad what is the tool we use to weigh it and what happens when we don't use this tool.

K- im good with most ks however don't assume i know the lit of them. explain it well. the alt is the most important thing on the k, if i dont understand how the alt solves or the alt doesn't make sense i probably wont vote on it.

CP- im good with most cp's i don't like topical CPS but on this topic those are hard to come by. so i am willing to listen to topical CPS,

as far as theory goes I'm good with you making them args but most of the time reject the arg not the team is sufficient.

condo- is really the only thing that i would vote on if there is actual abuse. not just bad time management.

disads- i like more true scenarios, good with most disads as long as your bases are covered. parts of the disad that i value the most in order


i think the link debates is one of the most important parts of the dis-ad debate.

case- case is important, one important thing to not is that on solvency try or die doesn't makes sense to me if this is the only argument you have on Solvency. you either win the solvency flow or you don't its not try or die, im old school in the sense of stock issues if you lose one (specifically solve ) you typically would lose the round.

framework- if no no FW is read i default to impact calc, however i framework is fine, just because you win FW doesn't mean you win the round it means i weigh the round though that lens, yes it does help your odds of winning but doesn't insure it.

last notes- i find my self looking down when people are speaking its not out of disinterest its because it helps me focus better on what your saying and not on an annoying tick you may or may not have.

Ramona Ashraf Paradigm

2 rounds

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Ashley Aulbach Paradigm

6 rounds

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Rachel Barnes Paradigm

2 rounds

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Scott Baxter Paradigm

3 rounds

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Heidi Baxter Paradigm

3 rounds

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Kayla Benson Paradigm

6 rounds

Hi, I’m Kayla :)

***NSDA 2020 PFD things at the bottom***

debated 3 years at shawnee heights (surveillance, china, education)

current debater at wichita state (executive powers, space, alliances)

current assistant coach at wichita east

please add me to the email chain:

top level:

*I am most familiar with policy style arguments but read what you want. All I ask is that you have a solvency mechanism and defend it through out the round.

*If you are problematic in round, I will drop your speaker points, and note it on the ballot.

*Don’t clip cards. In my mind that’s cheating, and you will lose.

*Tech Over Truth (in most instances)

*Easiest way to win my ballot is to have good claim-warrant-impact

*Clash is v important - I'm not a fan of when teams just read blocks, and don't engage the other team's arguments.

*Most importantly have fun (:


I think T debates are often underutilized in policy debates; it can be a strategic off case argument if executed properly. I usually default to competing interps; however, I am willing to vote on reasonability. If you are wanting me to vote on T it has to be the entire 2NR.


they are cool, but they must have a comprehensive story. I am more willing to vote on a specific link rather than a generic one. A good way to win this flow is to have a clear story and provide examples as to how the disad interacts with the case. Also, impact calc is important, esp in the 2NR.


I'm fine with almost every type of CP (not a fan of plan plus CP's), and I'm open to listen to any theory argument you may have on why that CP is a bad model of debate. If you don't have a clear net ben, I probably won't vote for the CP. I would also prefer if your planks had some sort of a solvency advocate.


I have run kritiks in the past, however I am not that familiar with a large majority of K lit. I am most comfortable with K’s such as cap/neolib and security, please don’t assume I know all of the mechanics of your K because I probably don’t. Feel free to read your K in front of me; however, there needs to be extensive analysis as to how the alt solves and how the aff links. Alt solvency in my mind is one of the most important components of the K. Blippy extensions of Alt don’t fly for me. Framework is important to a good K debate. And just like a da there needs to be a clear story that stays consistent throughout the round.


condo is almost always good, unless you can justify in-round abuse.

PFD Things

I coach PFD, however I have not judged very many PFD rounds and I have never competed in PFD. I do know argumentation though (refer to the paradigm above, most of it applies to pf). This little paragraph will mainly serve to tell you the things that I like to see in PF rounds, but I am open to new formats and strategies. I am a big fan of teams who work framework into the debate, and compare definitions. I also like it when teams discuss internal links. I honestly think PF is just watered down policy (my students told me to put I hate policy, but I won't lie to you... it's my one true love). Asking me detailed questions before the round is probably better than reading this. Have fun, and debate good. I will more than likely update this as NSDA goes along.

1. Please, Please, PLEASE have a framework contention. I think defining phrases such as "on balance" or "quality of education" are crucial to this debate.

2. I like lots of structure and organization. I flow by having a sheet for the pro case and a sheet for the con case. Telling me where to put certain arguments will make my evaluation so much easier in the end and probably benefit you.

3. The final focus should really be one big clear picture of the round and analyzing how each section of the round means that you should win.

4. Please format your evidence. I don't feel like reading whole articles at the end of the debate, and I probably won't if you send them to me like that. I only care about the section that you are referring to.

5. I am currently pursuing a degree in education, so I am really not a fan of arguments about inexperienced/young teachers being bad... its not true. I won't vote you down if you read these types of arguments but I will not be happy.

Paul Boyd Paradigm

2 rounds

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Roger Briggs Paradigm

6 rounds

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Kenon Brinkley Paradigm

2 rounds

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Zach Brown Paradigm

4 rounds

Zachary Brown

Updated: Sept 2019

8 years debate experience 2000-2008 (Derby HS, Wichita State University)

11 years coaching experience 2007-2018 (Assistant coach- Wichita East HS, Wichita State University, Head Coach- Hutchinson HS)

I am no longer as active as I used to be and I have not coached or judged extensively for the last few years. Explain your topic acronyms and argument jargon.

I think the topic is important but what the "topic" means is open for discussion. Debate is an important forum and I support efforts to discuss ways to make the community better.

I feel that respect and inclusion are fundamental values. Be mindful of the people in the room. Be nice! I have no tolerance for rude, disrespectful, and exclusionary behavior. Don't like it? Strike me. Debate is a game. Play to win, but have fun!

I don't care what kind of arguments you make, just make it a good one. I am not impressed by teams who copy the latest trends and arguments from a college or national circuit wiki without fundamental knowledge on how to execute those arguments. I like innovative arguments and I've voted for some wild stuff, but know your argument and do it well. I appreciate gutsy decisions and well executed strategy. I miss case debate.

At the risk of being a luddite, I don't like to call for cards and I don't want to get your speech doc. Debate is a communication activity and too many debaters rely on the speech doc to make arguments that the were not made in a speech. I don't want to read the evidence unless I have to. Usually if I call for a card that means that there is a fundamental disagreement about contents, suspicion of clipping, or unclear argumentation. Evidence quality matters a lot to me. The most underutilized skill in debate is good evidence comparison. Give me reasons to "prefer your evidence". It is the job of the debater to explain their arguments in a way that is understandable and flowable. Rate of delivery doesn't matter to me, but clarity does.

I know there is lots of other stuff to discuss. Just ask me before round if you have any questions.


Teddy Carlson Paradigm

2 rounds

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Maureen Corcoran Paradigm

6 rounds

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Eden Costilla Paradigm

1 rounds

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Peter Crevoiserat Paradigm

4 rounds

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Shonda Curtis Paradigm

3 rounds

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Brian Curtis Paradigm

3 rounds

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Jason DeGarmo Paradigm

8 rounds

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Caelan Dean Paradigm

2 rounds

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Shelby Eastman Paradigm

6 rounds

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Alisyn Edwards Paradigm

1 rounds

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Dillon Engelbrecht Paradigm

4 rounds

I debated for four years at Eisenhower high school. I am now an assistant there and have been for three years. I debated 2012-2016. When I was debating my style depended based on the judge, so I've gone for everything from T to Ks. On the affirmative I mostly ran a K aff that had a plan text.

You can put me on the email chain if you're setting one up:

I prefer medium to moderate speed and any slower. Not rapid. Please and thank you :)

I'm fine with most arguments. Here are some specifics.

T- I don't think that the aff has to be untopical to lose T. I think that if the neg has a reasonable interp and is better on the flow (and goes for T for 5 minutes in the 2nr) then, the aff can still be topical and lose on T. AKA please read T every round.

FW vs a K Aff - Will defer aff most of the time. If the neg says "policy good" read me a policy DA or CP against the aff to access any education impacts derived from policy debate.

Gabe Esquivel Paradigm

6 rounds

Gabe Esquivel 7/5/18

Debated 4 years at Kapaun** Mount Carmel in Wichita, Kansas

University of Kansas 2021

Email chain:

About me:

I am a stereotypical policy 2A. I’m alright at flowing but may miss tricks/theory args if you don’t make them especially clear. I’m a 6/10 for speed. Maybe a 7 if I'm very awake. I mostly go for DAs in the 1NR. I read security and cap a couple times, but I never got familiar with anything other K from the neg side. I really like presumption and T. I have a very hard time with K's and internal link questions now a days. By this I mean that specificity almost always increases the probability of an argument which is how I've started to evaluate most link questions.

Argument preferences:

I can always be persuaded the other way on these arguments, and I always hope you can teach me something. All of this is to show where I'm at in terms of how I think debate works.

I lean aff on framework vs a neg K because I think the aff should get fiat and hypothetical implementation for fairness. I don’t really understand K’s without alts yet, but I'm eager to learn from a good team how they work. I've become more sympathetic toward education based arguments on framework so I think this might be changing.

I lean neg on framework/T against planless affirmatives because I like fairness. Cheating CPs are okay unless you lose theory, I probably sympathize with 2A's though.

I think condo is either all good or all bad. I think presumption is an offensive argument because change is risky and knowledge is imperfect so feel free to say "presumption outweighs the risk that the aff does anything". Competing interpretations are more persuasive to me than reasonability.

I think "status quo is always an option" certainly means judge kick and "conditionality" leaves room for debate. Please start early if you plan on judge kick.

How I decide debates:

I'll always do my best to determine the debate and I'll try to understand your argument to the full extent possible.

I tend to start with the impacts to see which ones matter most. Turns case arguments help me prioritize impacts. Then I evaluate the risk of link arguments in terms of probabiltiy, magnitude, and timeframe. When there is no comparison by teams I think of link arguments as equal in what is most intuitive/persuasive and see if there is any mutual concession or a floating argument that increases risk. .

I try to keep tech over truth but will use truthiness if I need to resolve arguments that are left unresolved or have no direct clash as I mentioned above. I tend to read cards if I get to this point and I grant more weight to spin.

Explicitly answering tricks like serial policy failure, floating piks, cp turns into the aff, and link turns case will help me not intervene as much. If I can't explain your link, internal link, or impact arguments to the other team in an rfd I probably won't vote for it. I like to leave things like judge kick or "insert re-highlighting into debate" to the debaters, but if it comes down to it I will judge kick for you except in some circumstances (see above).

To be honest, I’m young and have not judged very much so my thoughts on lots of these things are still malleable. Being persuasive and “striking chords” will be helpful. I’ll try to show when that happens or when I’m confused with facial expressions. I really like it when powerpoints are used in cx.

**Pronounced (Kay-pen)

McKenna Florez Paradigm

I am an experienced flow judge. I vote off of stock issues, speaking skills and communications. I am okay with counter plans and K's. Speed is okay but it must be clear.

Noel Gary Paradigm

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Lauren Gengler Paradigm

2 rounds

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Connie Graves Paradigm

4 rounds

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Andrew Halverson Paradigm

5 rounds

Name: Andrew Halverson
School: Wichita East High School (Wichita, KS), Assistant Coach
Experience: 20+ years. As a competitor, 4 years in high school and 3 years in college @ Fort Hays and Wichita State.

[BELOW IS UPDATED FOR DCI AND STATE - My original philosophy is after the update.]

I'm going to be that person that vent a bunch of my pet peeves regarding how the logistics of the debate go and how I adjudicate debates. Here's goes a quick list (I intended this to be a quick list, but now it's decent sized list of what grinds my gears):

1. If possible, I want to be on the email chain (halverson.andrew [at] If not, I want your speech docs flashed to me before you speak. There are a few reasons I would like this to happen: a) I'm checking as you are going along if you are clipping; b) since I am reading along, I'm making note of what is said in your evidence to see if it becomes an issue in the debate OR a part of my decision - these national qualifier tournaments put a heavy premium on quick decisions, so having that to look at before just makes the trains run on-time and that makes the powers that be happy; c) because I'm checking your scholarship, it allows for me to make more specific comments about your evidence and how you are deploying it within a particular debate. If you refuse to email or flash before your speech for me, there will probably be consequences in terms of speaker points and anything else I determine to be relevant - since I'm the ultimate arbiter of my ballot in the debate which I'm judging.

2. Don't make the roadmap harder than it needs to be. PLEASE DO HAVE A ROADMAP! If you were giving a 1nc roadmap, it should sound something like, "There will be 4 off and then case in the order of Advantage 1, Advantage 2, and Solvency." DON'T SAY: "It'll be 4 off and case." WTAF?! Where do I flow these arguments on case? Find a place to put your arguments. Keep to it.

3. This jumping around on the flow thing is ridiculous. I have judged more debates than I can count this year where a debater says: "On Solvency, the AFF is key to...wait, back onto Topicality. Reasonability should be the lens to evaluate T because...oh, back on the other T." THIS DRIVES ME BONKERS!! Be clean on your flows. If I can't figure out where you and what's you're doing it will costs you lots of speaker points and, most likely, a victory.

4. Don't debate off a script. Yes, blocks are nice. I like when debaters have blocks. They make answering arguments easier. HOWEVER, if you just read off your script going for whatever argument, I'm not going to be happy. Typically, this style of debate involves some clash and large portions of just being unresponsive to the other team's claims. More than likely, you are reading some prepared oration at a million miles per hour and expect me to write down every word. Guess what? I can't. In fact, there is not a judge in the world that can accomplish that feat. So use blocks, but be responsive to what's going on in the debate.

5. Blippy theory debates really irk me. To paraphrase Mike Harris: if you are going as fast as possible on a theory debate at the end of a page and then start the next page with more theory, I'm going to inevitably miss some of it. Whether I flow on paper or on my computer, it takes a second for me to switch pages and get to the place you want me to be on the flow. Slow down a little bit when you want to go for theory - especially if you think it can be a round-winner. I promise you it'll be worth it for you in the end.

6. Read below about this but I want to make this abundantly clear. I won't do work for you unless the debate is completely messed up and I have to do some things to clean up the debate and write a ballot. So, if you drop a Perm, but have answers elsewhere that would answer it, unless you have made that cross-application I won't apply that for you. The debater answering said Perm needs to make the cross-application/answer(s) on their own.

7. Stop stealing prep time. In terms of flashing, prep stops when the save is complete and the flash drive leaves your computer. At this point, you should have an idea of a speech order and be getting set to speak. Don't be super unorganized and take another 2-3 minutes to just stand up there getting stuff together. I don't mind taking a bit to get yourself together, but I find that debaters are abusing that now. When I judge by myself, I'm usually laid back about using the restroom, but I strongly suggest that you consider the other people on the panel - not doing things like stopping prep and then going to the bathroom before you start to speak. I get emergencies, but this practice is really shady. Bottom-line: if you're stealing prep, I'll call you on it out loud and start the timer.

8. Disclosure is something I can't stand when it's done wrong. If proper disclosure doesn't happen before a round, I'm way more likely to vote on a disclosure argument in this setting. If you have questions about my views on disclosure, please ask them before the debate occurs - so you know where you stand.

9. New in the 2nc is bad. What I mean by that is whole new DA's read - old school style - in the 2nc does not foster good debate. I'm willing to listen to theory arguments on the matter, BUT they have to be impacted out. However, that's not the best answer to a NEG attempting this strategy. The best answer is for the 1ar to quickly straight turn whatever that argument is and then move on. Debaters that straight turn will be rewarded. Debaters that do new in the 2nc will either lose because of theory argument or have their speaks tanked by me.


I never know how to completely do these things – because I tend to think there’s no way this judging philosophy can 100% accurately describe how I evaluate a debate, but here goes.

Stylistically, I’m a decent flow, but I wouldn’t go completely crazy. That being said, I’m one of those critics (and I was the same way as a debater) that will attempt to write down almost everything you say as long as you make a valiant attempt to be clear. Super long overviews that aren't flowable make no sense to me. In other words, make what you say translate into what you want me to write down. I will not say or yell if you aren’t clear. You probably can figure it out – from my non-verbals – if you aren’t clear and if I’m not getting it. I will not say/yell "clear" and the debate will most definitely be impacted adversely for you. If I don’t “get it,” it’s probably your job to articulate/explain it to me.

What kind of argument and general preferences do I have regarding academic debate? I will listen to everything and anything from either side of the debate. You can be a critical team or a straight-up team. It doesn’t matter to me. An argument is an argument. Answering arguments with good arguments is probably a good idea, if the competitive aspect of policy debate is important to you at all. If you need some examples: Wipeout? Sure, did it myself. Affirmatives without a plan? Did that too. Spark? You bet. Specific links are great, obviously. Of course, I prefer offense over defense too. I don’t believe that tabula rasa exists, but I do try to not have preconceived notions about arguments. Yet we all know this isn’t possible. If I ultimately have to do so, I will default to policymaker to make my decision easier for me. Hope all of this settles a few things about argument selection with me as a critic.

A caveat to the above – I have recently developed a disdain towards Consult CPs and most “cheating” CPs. If it’s a part of your core strategy, you shouldn’t be dissuaded from running these styles of argument. However, I tend to be sympathetic towards the AFF on theory and substantive arguments vs. this style of argument. As the NEG, you had better REALLY win this argument to win my ballot.

Debate theory is something that is continually evolving. As a young debater, you learn and execute the basics. Then other theoretical concepts come into play as you grow in debate. In the end, debate theory can be either really complicated or really interesting. Lots of people like to stay away from theory goo—I used to be one of them. Over time, I changed my viewpoint on the matter. One of my dislikes as a critic is tagline debating—especially when it comes to theory. Repeating your tags over and over again aren’t going to convey your point any further unless you get deeper into the claims/warrants being argued. Anyway, thoroughly explaining your theory argument is a very good idea with me. Like other debate arguments, I want to theoretically know what your interpretation of whatever aspect of debate theory includes or exclude—what the world looks like under your viewpoint.

Comparing and contrast claims, whether with evidence or analytics, is extremely important for me. If you don’t do it, then you’ll leave me to kneejerk to my own proclivities. That means that I’ll probably end up concocting a story that makes sense to me—confusing you and probably leaving you a bit irritated. My advice is do the work for me so I don’t get into such a position. For the record, I do tend to lean liberal with both my debate and political proclivities.

Finally, I know you hear this a lot, but be nice and have fun. If you have any specific question about my philosophy (which you should because this certainly doesn’t explain everything), ask me questions either immediately before the debate or you can e-mail me at halverson.andrew [at] gmail dot com. Hope this clear a few things up. Happy Debating to all of you!!

And by the way, below is a semi-judge of how I give speaker points. I stole the bulk of this (actually all of it) from Lucia Scott, so I guess this means she’s gets a h/t in this portion of my judging philosophy. This is a guide for how I give speaks, but it is subject to contextual change with any given debate (which probably shouldn’t happen very often – if at all).

Speaker Points:

25 or below – You were so offensive I almost told you to shut up. You're lucky my RFD wasn't as long as they would give me telling you how terrible whatever you said was. This also includes instances where I think you probably aren’t ready for the level of debate that I was judging at the time.

25.5-26.5 – You didn't use all your speech time, and/or your partner gave most of your rebuttal. You probably repeated yourself a lot and your speech, most likely, was not compelling at all. You also might have just been absurdly rude.

27 – You failed to extend warrants, your speech was so disorganized it hurt, and/or your rebuttal was clearly scripted. You made some kind of damning strategic error. I had to say clear twice and you still weren't clear.

27.5 – This is where I start. Your speeches were pretty average with no glaring strategic errors. You were decently clear, but by no means should you quit speed drills.

28 – Your strategy or the way you deployed it impressed me in some way. You're pretty fast and pretty clear.

28.5 – You're fast and I understood almost everything you said. You're persuasive. Your strategy was efficient and effective.

29 – I understood everything you said. You obviously know your arguments well, maybe even cut the argument yourself. You were smart and aggressive without being rude at all. I
had fun watching you debate.

29.5 – Your speeches were so devastating the other team had no chance. I heard every single word of every single card. You didn't rely on cheap arguments. Everything you said could've been the 2NR/2AR. This was a super easy decision.

30 – You're not getting one of these UNLESS there are some amazing circumstances that permit it OR you have given one of the top 3 debate speeches that I have ever heard. Usually, this amount of point means that I think you could win the NDT right now.

Ruthann Harris Paradigm

2 rounds

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Nick Hawthorn Paradigm

1 rounds

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Mercedes Hindman Paradigm

6 rounds

Policy maker with stocks roots. Negative constitutionality good; love counter-plans. Open to K's and K Affs.

Alec Hinecker Paradigm

2 rounds

WSU: 2018-now


Debate fast, have fun, I will do my best to make decisions.

Need to know:

Please put evidence in documents, not the email chain.

I keep track of time in all speeches/prep.

Quality of evidence is important.

Well executed insults of the other team is +.02 speaks.

In round:

Condo: implies judge kick, and will do it unless told not to and given good reasons.

Speaking: Speaking style is important; however, it does NOT require sacrificing speed. Being fast can be important, especially in debate. It’d be easiest if you were as clear as possible, or else it makes things harder on me. It also helps with speaks - I will start at 28.5 and work my way up and down.

Cross-ex: yelling, being annoying, or acting like a turd sandwich - all suck ass to watch. Weaponize CX. Make arguments and answer questions - if there is something unclear I will speak up or ask questions. CX ends when the buzzer beeps.

Rebuttals: I will give more thought to genuine smart analysis and card comparison. 2NRs/ARs that lack comparison between evidence and impacts will be less likely to win.

Tech v. Truth: both are important. If someone conceded a DA they concede it. However, if you’re going for a link argument that just isn’t true even if it’s conceded, I will be less likely to vote for that argument; truth is important to some degree with specific arguments.


Case: if you make the right arguments it helps a lot, a good case debate is the best. Highly undervalued in debate. You shouldn’t ignore it. Also, I think judges give way to much leeway on case for the aff, a DA and case strategy can work. Killing a case can boost speaks.

Counter plans: Perms don’t make any sense unless they solve the net benefit, or if the NB links to the CP. Intrinsic and Severance perm theory aren’t voters, but are reasons why rejecting the perm solves. A good cp will make the debate easier. You can also check my thoughts for other opinions on which CPs are legit. Judge kick is implied in condo, I believe that absent the aff giving good reasons why I shouldn't judge kick, I will.

Disadvantages: They're fine. If your DA doesn’t make any sense though, I will be more willing to believe aff arguments.

Kritiks: I don’t know every K lit, I went for the K, and it can be strategic. Explain your links and impacts, why the alt solves or why it doesn’t need too, and just make sense. Be clean.

Kritikal affs: they are fine and good. To vote for a kritikal aff, 1) I must know what it does, and 2) why this discussion is good/outweighs. I do tend to lean policy, just based off experience - keep that in mind.

Framework: not much different than T honestly, just win an impact and why it outweighs.

T: awesome, just make sense. Competing interps is probably better than reasonability, and reasonability I see best as an "we meet" modifier. Do your impact work, please.

Ashley Hinton Paradigm

1 rounds

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Jodee Hobbs Paradigm

5 rounds

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Sohail Jouya Paradigm

6 rounds

Current Director of Debate at Mill Valley (Kansas)

Formerly of:
Director of Debate at Andover Central (Kansas)
Director of Debate at University Academy and Lincoln Prep (DEBATE – Kansas City)
Coach at Kansas City Kansas Community College

Yes, email chain - sohailjouyaATgmailDOTcom


- I appreciate adaptation to my preferences but don’t do anything that would make you uncomfortable. Never feel obligated to compete in a manner that inhibits your ability to be effective. My promise to you will be that I will keep an open mind and assess whatever you chose. In short: do you.

- Truth > Tech. I recognize that debate is not merely a game, but rather a competition that models the world in which we live. This doesn’t mean I believe judges should intervene on the basis of "realistic impacts" or "reasonability" -- what it does mean is that embedded clash band the “nexus question” of the round is of more importance than blippy technical oversights between certain sheets of paper.
Don't fret: if the 1NC drops case on your Cthulu Aff, you'll probably be fine to weigh against whatever stuff they got...

- As a coach of a UDL school where many of my debaters make arguments centred on their identity, diversity is a genuine concern. It may play a factor in how I evaluate a round, particularly in debates regarding what’s “best” for the community/activity.

Do you and I’ll do my best to evaluate it but I’m not a tabula rasa and the dogma of debate has me to believe the following. I have put a lot of time and thought into this while attempting to be parsimonious - if you are serious about winning my ballot a careful read would prove to serve you well:


- All speech acts are performances, consequently debaters should defend their performances including the advocacy, evidence, arguments/positions, interpretations, and representations of said speech acts.

- One of the most annoying questions a judged can be asked: “Are you cool with speed?”
In short: yes. But smart and slow always beats fast and dumb.
I have absolutely no preference on rate of delivery, though I will say it might be smart to slow down a bit on really long tags, advocacy texts, your totally sweet theory/double-bind argument or on overviews that have really nuanced descriptions of the round. My belief is that speed is typically good for debate but please remember that spreading’s true measure is contingent on the number of arguments that are required to be answered by the other team not your WPM.

- Ethos: I used to never really think this mattered at all. To a large degree, it still doesn’t considering I’m unabashedly very flowcentric but I tend to give high speaker points to debaters who performatively express mastery knowledge of the subjects discussed, ability to exercise round vision, assertiveness, and that swank.

- Holistic Approaches: the 2AR/2NR should be largely concerned with two things:
1) provide framing of the round so I can make an evaluation of impacts and the like
2) descriptively instruct me on how to make my decision

Overviews have the potential for great explanatory power, use that time and tactic wisely.

While I put form first, I am of the maxim that “form follows function” – I contend that the reverse would merely produce an aesthetic, a poor formula for argument testing in an intellectually rigorous and competitive activity. In summation: you need to make an argument and defend it.


- The Affirmative ought to be responsive to the topic. This is a pinnacle of my paradigm that is quite broad and includes teams who seek to engage in resistance to the proximate structures that frame the topic. Conversely, this also implicates teams that prioritize social justice - debaters utilizing methodological strategies for best resistance ought to consider their relationship to the topic.
Policy-oriented teams may read that last sentence with glee and K folks may think this is strike-worthy…chill. I do not prescribe to the notion that to be topical is synonymous with being resolutional.

- The Negative’s ground is rooted in the performance of the Affirmative as well as anything based in the resolution. It’s that simple; engage the 1AC if at all possible.

- I view rounds in an offense/defense lens. Many colleagues are contesting the utility of this approach in certain kinds of debate and I’m ruminating about this (see: “Thoughts on Competition”) but I don’t believe this to be a “plan focus” theory and I default to the notion that my decisions require a forced choice between competing performances.

- I will vote on Framework. That means I will vote for the team running the position based on their interpretation, but it also means I’ll vote on offensive responses to the argument. Vindicating an alternative framework is a necessary skill and one that should be possessed by kritikal teams - justifying your form of knowledge production as beneficial in these settings matter.
Framework appeals effectively consist of a normative claim of how debate ought to function. The interpretation should be prescriptive; if you are not comfortable with what the world of debate would look like if your interpretation were universally applied, then you have a bad interpretation. The impact to your argument ought to be derived from your interpretation (yes, I’ve given RFDs where this needed to be said). Furthermore, Topical Version of the Affirmative must specifically explain how the impacts of the 1AC can be achieved, it might be in your best interest to provide a text or point to a few cases that achieve that end. This is especially true if you want to go for external impacts that the 1AC can’t access – but all of this is contingent on a cogent explanation as to why order precedes/is the internal link to justice.

- I am pretty comfortable judging Clash of Civilization debates.

- Framework is the job of the debaters. Epistemology first? Ontology? Sure, but why? Where does performance come into play – should I prioritize a performative disad above the “substance” of a position? Over all of the sheets of paper in the round? These are questions debaters must grapple with and preferably the earlier in the round the better.

- "Framework is how we frame our work" >>>>> "FrAmEwOrK mAkEs ThE gAmE wOrK"

-Presumption is always an option. In my estimation the 2NR may go for Counterplan OR a Kritik while also giving the judge the option of the status quo. Call it “hypo-testing” or whatever but I believe a rational decision-making paradigm doesn’t doom me to make a single decision between two advocacies, especially when the current status of things is preferable to both. I don't know if I really “judge kick” for you, instead, the 2NR should explain an “even if” route to victory via presumption to allow the 2AR to respond.
“But what about when presumption flips Affirmative?” This is a claim that probably needs to be established prior to the 2NR. While I say that, I've definitely voted in favour of plenty of 2ARs that haven't said that in the 1AR.

- Role of the Ballots ought to invariably allow the 1AC/1NC to be contestable and provide substantial ground to each team. Many teams will make their ROBs self-serving at best, or at worse, tautological. That's because there's a large contingency of teams that think the ROB is an advocacy statement. They are not.
If they fail to equally distribute ground, they are merely impact framing. A good ROB can effectively answer a lot of framework gripes regarding the Affirmative’s pronouncement of an unfalsifiable truth claim.

- Analytics that are logically consistent, well warranted and answer the heart of any argument are weighed in high-esteem. This is especially true if it’s responsive to any combinations of bad argument/evidence.

- My threshold for theory is not particularly high. It’s what you justify, not necessarily what you do. I typically default to competing interpretations, this can be complicated by a team that is able to articulate what reasonability means in the context of the round, otherwise I feel like its interventionist of me to decode what “reasonable” represents. The same is true to a lesser extent with the impacts as well. Rattling off “fairness and education” as loaded concepts that I should just know has a low threshold if the other team can explain the significance of a different voter or a standard that controls the internal link into your impact (also, if you do this: prepared to get impact turned).

I think theory should be strategic and I very much enjoy a good theory debate. Copious amounts of topicality and specification arguments is not strategic, it is desperate.

- I like conditionality probably more so than other judges. As a young’n I got away with a lot of, probably, abusive Negative strategies that relied on conditionality to the maximum (think “multiple worlds and presumption in the 2NR”) mostly because many teams were never particularly good at explaining why this was a problem. If you’re able to do so, great – just don’t expect me to do much of that work for you. I don’t find it particularly difficult for a 2AR to make an objection about how that is bad for debate, thus be warned 2NRs - it's a downhill effort for a 2AR.
Furthermore, I tend to believe the 1NC has the right to test the 1AC from multiple positions.
Thus, Framework along with Cap K or some other kritik is not a functional double turn. The 1NC doesn’t need to be ideologically consistent. However, I have been persuaded in several method debates that there is a performative disadvantage that can be levied against speech acts that are incongruent and self-defeating.

- Probability is the most crucial components of impact calculus with disadvantages. Tradeoffs ought to have a high risk of happening and that question often controls the direction of uniqueness while also accessing the severity of the impact (magnitude).

- Counterplan debates can often get tricky, particularly if they’re PICs. Maybe I’m too simplistic here, but I don’t understand why Affirmatives don’t sit on their solvency deficit claims more. Compartmentalizing why portions of the Affirmative are key can win rounds against CPs. I think this is especially true because I view the Counterplan’s ability to solve the Affirmative to be an opportunity cost with its competitiveness. Take advantage of this “double bind.”

- Case arguments are incredibly underutilized and the dirty little secret here is that I kind of like them. I’m not particularly sentimental for the “good ol’ days” where case debate was the only real option for Negatives (mostly because I was never alive in that era), but I have to admit that debates centred on case are kind of cute and make my chest feel all fuzzy with a nostalgia that I never experienced– kind of like when a frat boy wears a "Reagan/Bush '84" shirt...


I know enough to know that kritiks are not monolithic. I am partial to topic-grounded kritiks and in all reality I find them to be part of a typical decision-making calculus. I tend to be more of a constructivist than a rationalist. Few things frustrate me more than teams who utilize a kritik/answer a kritik in a homogenizing fashion. Not every K requires the ballot as a tool, not every K looks to have an external impact either in the debate community or the world writ larger, not every K criticizes in the same fashion. I suggest teams find out what they are and stick to it, I also think teams should listen and be specifically responsive to the argument they hear rather rely on a base notion of what the genre of argument implies. The best way to conceptualize these arguments is to think of “kritik” as a verb (to criticize) rather than a noun (a static demonstrative position).
It is no secret that I love many kritiks but deep in every K hack’s heart is revered space that admires teams that cut through the noise and simply wave a big stick and impact turn things, unabashedly defending conventional thought. If you do this well there’s a good chance you can win my ballot. If pure agonism is not your preferred tactic, that’s fine but make sure your post-modern offense onto kritiks can be easily extrapolated into a 1AR in a fashion that makes sense.
In many ways, I believe there’s more tension between Identity and Post-Modernism teams then there are with either of them and Policy debaters. That being said, I think the Eurotrash K positions ought to proceed with caution against arguments centred on Identity – it may not be smart to contend that they ought to embrace their suffering or claim that they are responsible for a polemical construction of identity that replicates the violence they experience (don’t victim blame).


There’s a lot of talk about what is or isn’t competition and what competition ought to look like in specific types of debate – thus far I am not of the belief that different methods of debate require a different rubric for evaluation. While much discussion as been given to “Competition by Comparison” I very much subscribe to Competing Methodologies. What I’ve learned in having these conversations is that this convention means different things to different people and can change in different settings in front of different arguments. For me, I try to keep it consistent and compatible with an offense/defense heuristic: competing methodologies requires an Affirmative focus where the Negative requires an independent reason to reject the Affirmative. In this sense, competition necessitates a link. This keeps artificial competition at bay via permutations, an affirmative right regardless of the presence of a plan text.

Permutations are merely tests of mutual exclusivity. They do not solve and they are not a shadowy third advocacy for me to evaluate. I naturally will view permutations more as a contestation of linkage – and thus, are terminal defense to a counterplan or kritik -- than a question of combining texts/advocacies into a solvency mechanism. If you characterize these as solvency mechanisms rather than a litmus test of exclusivity, you ought to anticipate offense to the permutation (and even theory objections to the permutation) to be weighed against your “net-benefits”. This is your warning to not be shocked if I'm extrapolating a much different theoretical understanding of a permutation if you go 5/6 minutes for it in the 2AR.
Even in method debates where a permutation contends both methods can work in tandem, there is no solvency – in these instances net-benefits function to shield you from links (the only true “net benefit” is the Affirmative). A possible exception to this scenario is “Perm do the Affirmative” where the 1AC subsumes the 1NC’s alternative; here there may be an offensive link turn to the K resulting in independent reasons to vote for the 1AC.

Zubair Khan Paradigm

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Ravindra Kiragi Paradigm

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Craig Kreiser Paradigm

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Katie Landa Paradigm

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Tim Laner Paradigm

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Nivin Lee Paradigm

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I did debate and forensics at East High School in Wichita, KS from 2013-2017.

Some considerations:

I'm fine with students going however fast they want.

I like to have speech docs to track arguments and key warrants.

I mainly stuck to policy and theory related arguments, but Ks are fine as long as the evidence is well cut and it makes sense in the context of the round.

I value line-by-line debate a lot, which means proper signposting and articulate argumentation is always a plus.

Dominik Lett Paradigm

4 rounds


tldr: read whatever you want but policy is my forte - feel free to email me if you have questions

put me on the email chain:

call me dom and use they/them pronouns

wichita state university: 2018-now

coach at maize high school


certain issues can and should supersede tech such as clipping cards or egregious ethics violations - however, most debates i judge don't involve those issues - i default to tech over truth - initially evaluating presented arguments at equal merit is the most consistent, impartial mechanism i've found to provide competitive equity - evidence matters a lot to me - i tend to think specificity and author qualification should act as a filter for claims/warrants

clash is crucial - how you prioritize arguments alters how i connect the dots to determine a decision - provide judge instruction and organization - the more you focus on explicitly characterizing the direction of the debate, the more my rfd will sound like your 2nr/2ar

i reward nuance and depth - more pages covered tends to mean less time developing substance/structure - narrowing the debate allows for greater engagement - impacting out warrants makes comparison for me much easier

insert graph joke here


i tend to think resolutional action is good but i can be convinced otherwise - capacity to debate matters to me - it's why clash is possible - limits and grounds are good - they provide the foundation for clash - portable skills/subject formation are important, but i'm not sure i understand why it's unique to debate - the interp is your model of debate - defend it - definitions are vital in helping me understand your model's mandates/effects

for the aff: explaining how your counterinterp uniquely generates offense (e.g. explaining why affs under your interp are important) and generates defense (e.g. quantifying affs under your interp) help me conceptualize weighing clash vs your model - i appreciate the "no perms and you get links to your disads" strategy - it seems to resolve a substantive portion of clash offense but becomes less convincing the more generic neg ground is eliminated

for the neg: explaining internal link turns are important - quantifying limits/grounds to demonstrate loss of clash is helpful - procedural fairness/switch side is often a compelling way to frame decision-making, but i'm not opposed to the mechanism education style fw if that's your expertise - the tva is a useful defensive resource but requires development and evidence


many of my preferences for fw apply here

reasonability makes little sense as an argument in and of itself - read it as a limits bad arg (argument diversity, topic development, research innovation, etc) - arguments for interp precision are often pretty compelling


i like detailed link/impact explanations - focus on evidence comparison will be rewarded


i like solvency advocates (someone who proposes a process of achieving an action to fix a problem) - read them - the more specific, the more legitimate and likely to solve


it's probably safe to assume i lack familiarity with the nuances of your chosen field of critical theory - most of my experience is with structural k's (e.g. marxism/legalism) - postmodernist/associated theories will likely require a more in-depth explanation of terminology - do not read suffering/death good - specific link application (e.g. circumvention/internal link turns) and alt explanation will help guide my decision calculus - the aff should probably get to weigh the plan

-soft left affs-

the cohn card alone will likely never convince me disads should go away - it makes a lot of sense to me to go for critiques of da's/cp's - critical strategies (e.g. technocracy bad) and scenario planning indicts (e.g. tetlock and bernstein) are applicable - keep in mind i have far more experience with the latter


actually engaging in their theory block results in better args, lends credibility, and will be rewarded - most theory doesn't justify rejecting the team - whatever your proposed remedy is, providing a justification for it will be appreciated

condo is maybe good - i like the idea of reciprocity, but aff variety makes being neg tough - if you're aff, i find substance args more compelling than advocacy stuff - if you're neg, i find strategic flex args more compelling than critical thinking stuff

-other thoughts-

misc - don't worry about visual feedback - i'm always tired - i will clear you however many times i feel necessary - please try to increase volume/clarity in front of me as much as you can - feel free to alert me of any concerns about structural impediments you experience that could implicate how i evaluate the round so i can accommodate accordingly

cross-ex - i think anything goes in cross-ex as long as it's the 'asking team' - reading cards, taking prep, bathroom break, whatever - i think the 'responding team' is generally obligated to answer questions if asked - if you ignore and it's not reasonable, you will lose speaks

inserting arguments - generally fine as long as you explain thoroughly - graphs/diagrams/screenshots are cool - i'm far more skeptical of rehighlighted evidence

new arguments - they're almost always justified in response to new args - i grant more leeway to 2nc shenanigans than the 1nr - i think that 1ar's get the most leeway bc of structural time disadvantages and inevitable block creativity

Jennifer Magana Paradigm

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Evan Manning Paradigm

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Evan Manning

Eisenhower High School Director of Debate


Previous institutional affiliations and role

Wichita East High School

Shawnee Mission West High School

Emporia State University

Debating experience

I debated from 2000-2005 at Shawnee Mission West, and Emporia State. I have stayed fairly connected with the activity since, and have ranging from a little to a lot coached teams who have finished high at national tournaments, TOC qualifiers, the DCI, and State Championships.

What do you view your role as the judge in the debate?

1.) Ensure a safe and equitable space for the debate to occur.

2.) Pay attention to both argumentation and communicative ability of all in the room

3.) Let the debater’s debate, and stay in my lane, adjudicating the round as they would like the round to be interpreted. (I am Tab)

4.) Make the best decision I am able, and can give a reasonable assessment of my methodology

5.) Try and offer advice, or clarity on the RFD and choices in the round in an oral critique

Purpose of Philosophy

I think debaters either under or overvalue who I am as a judge, and the philosophy should be a starting point of shared understanding before asking more specific questions pre round with both teams present.

Evaluative Practices and Views on Debate Round Logistics

I have come to dislike computer debate as per the lost time, the flashing issues, the speech doc reading, the functional clipping of unintelligible sound during speeches, sitting in cross ex, not making eye contact, the phrase “straight down the flow” and the overall lack of warrants or communicative intricacy.

Am I on the Chain?


What is your normal range for speaker points and why? What can earn extra speaker points for a debater? What can cost speaker points for a debater, even if they win the debate?

-My speaker point scale has tended to be:

30. I have only given out two, and would love the chance of hearing another perfect pair of speeches.

-------Shout-out: Samantha Nichols DCI Round 7

Grace Kessler : vs LFS in 2017

29.5 - you should receive a speaker award in this division at this tournament

29 - you should be in elimination debates at this tournament, and probably win one or more of those rounds

28.8 you are competing for a spot to clear but still making errors that may prevent you from doing so. Average for the division/tournament.

28. - you are fine

27.5 - you are slightly below average for the division/tournament and need to spend some time on the fundamentals. Hopefully, I've outlined in my notes what those are.

27 - you are in the wrong division or at the wrong tournament in my estimation.

**I've found that the best way to boost your speaks on my ballot is to demonstrate that you understand the nexus points of the debate and/or when the debate has resolved itself through your argumentative prowess. Often, this means strong/specific overviews, and can sometimes mean not utilizing all of your prep/speech time when the flow of the debate indicates it is impossible for your opposition to come back in the round. (EG - if the 1AR drops a topicality argument in its entirety, and you use 4 minutes of prep for the 2NR and give a 5 minute 2NR speech - you have not demonstrated mastery of the flow.

Do you say clearer out loud if a debater is unclear? Is there a limit to the number of times you will say clearer if you do? Do you use other non-verbal cues to signal a lack of clarity?

Yes I will say clear, I will say it until I feel you aren’t trying to be clearer, I will be overtly grumpy and you should know I’m no longer flowing if you were to look up.

Do you find yourself reading a lot of evidence after the debate?


Do you evaluate the un-underlined parts of the evidence even if the debaters do not make that an argument?

No, the team would have to make argumentation about the evidence

What are your predispositions or views on the following:

Topicality- If the Aff is not T, it should be the 2NR

Theory- I find myself usually not pulling the trigger as a stand alone round winning argument But I do fondness myself using theory as a framing or threshold mitigation question

Affirmative’s need to read a plan in order to win on the aff- Yes, or at least a topical stasis point.

Performance teams - Possible to go for it, need to know what you will and won’t defend. I think you should make explicit how my ballot functions in this debate as well as where you defend the impacts occur and stop occuring (IE in the room, in the fiated debate world, outside the literal debate room etc.)

How do you feel about tricks?

Tricks are fun. You can slow roll in cx, you can impact turn pretty much anything, you can set up double binds and double turns and all is good. There is no such thing as a cheating argument you can’t win, just an argument that probably had a higher threshold to win. I find myself being madder at the opponent for putting me in a position to vote for a bad argument than the team that did it.

Thomas Martinez Paradigm

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Jeremy Martinez-Quintana Paradigm

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Amy McCormack Paradigm

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Shannon Miskell Paradigm

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Tim Moore Paradigm

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I have 8 years of high school and college debate, and coached debate for two years at a high school. Comfortable with speed, K, debate theory, or any style, though focus on old-fashioned persuasion should not be lost. Generic disadvantages are fine, though there must be some attempt at linkage.

((edit by daughter: he does not mean policy debate experience. He did parli at Brown and was offered a coaching position at Yale, so he's good, yes, but don't read "8 years" and go "oh boy, Baud time!" Lawyer mindset, but also agrees w/ the Rev alt, so take that as you will.))

Taylor Moore Paradigm

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Patrick Myers Paradigm

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Antony Nation Paradigm

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Name: Tony Nation

School – Kapaun Mt. Carmel HS, Wichita, KS – Assistant Coach

Debated at Emporia State and Wichita State – Been coaching pretty much ever since.

Email: – add me to the chain

If you’re looking for LD specific, it’s at the bottom. I’d still suggest reading the whole thing.

Prep time ends when you remove the flash drive, stand up and start approaching the other team. Once they have the files, you should be ready to speak. Speech time starts after you have given me the roadmap and begin the actual speech.

I would consider myself a pretty decent flow since I use my laptop, but don’t go crazy. If you’re not clear or I’m behind I’ll let you know. The only thing that confuses me is when you don’t tell me where you are and/or are giving some super long overview and haven’t told me that’s what’s going on. So, if you’re giving an overview up top, tell me that’s what you’re going to do.

As far as argument types and preferences, I really don’t care what you run as long as you’re not advocating something offensive (racism/sexism). Spark, wipeout, de-dev, etc. are all ok. Generally, I’m looking for offense. I can’t remember one time I’ve voted for someone with only defensive arguments. I’m generally not going to agree that your defensive cards are a 100% takeout unless there’s a really, really, really, really, really good reason. That being said, I can definitely tell you I’m not a “stock issues” judge. I’d say that if not given direction, I would be best described as a policy-maker.

Notes about specific arguments:

All arguments have a claim and at least one warrant.

I don’t have a pre-conceived notion about conditional arguments. You probably should be prepared to debate that when necessary.

Without a very specific link, I have a hard time believing that your generic criticism means a case won’t solve at all. If you argue that there isn’t any version of the affirmative that will ever work, that’s fair. But you should probably be able to conjure up at least one similar historical example. The worst critical debates are where people just read long card after long card and then only refer back to the author/date. We’ve seen policy actions work in the past, right?

This doesn’t mean I won’t vote for “generic” arguments. I ran them when I debated and coach my teams to run them.

My best advice is to do whatever you need to do to win the round. I’m open to anything.

Other Notes: Humor helps your points. I've given a 30 only one time when I didn't laugh. I don't believe that 'cheating' counterplans are cheating. I think that it's a legitimate test of a policy to discuss when it should happen or why part of it should/should not happen. Legislatures consider both of those things, especially in committee. A clever Haiku is acceptable in the 2NR/2AR. I'd say its acceptable elsewhere, but I don't think your 1AR will have that kind of time. Impact turns? Go right ahead. If you want to tell me that it's cool for a million humans to die because it saves some rare form of slug that has cancer curing venom, go right ahead. I think it's important to weigh impacts. I have four cats. Do with that information what you will. Spec and advocate arguments work sometimes as well. It's part of critical thinking. Not all authors write with the exact same premise. Spending and politics uniqueness should probably be less than 48 hours old (well, newer than the last time we enacted new spending or a similar law.) If you're reading camp uniqueness for spending/politics, I'll be offended. Completely new arguments in the 2s will probably not win you the round. I'll give the 1AR tons of leeway since I remember that struggle. If there is a new DA in the 2 and the 1AR decides to give you a straight turn for Christmas, I'll probably give them a 30, even if they lose. At this point I'm just rambling, but you've gotten a deep insight into my mind. Make it worth your time. I'll leave you with this. If you don't do the work for me and I have to figure out everything for myself, you either won't like the outcome or I'll eventually vote on presumption.

LD – I don’t place any pre-conceived value on a particular model of LD debate. That means that someone doesn’t have a defined value or criterion. You can debate that model, you can advocate a policy, multiple policies, hypotest or run critical arguments. This means you should be prepared to answer those arguments if they are presented. I also have zero preference for speed in LD. If someone goes fast and they are capable of it, then so be it. The only rules I’m going to have you follow are speech times, speech order and prep time. I recently had a long conversation about the place of counterplans in LD. I came out with a couple of thoughts. 1: If the resolution defines an actor (eg: United States) I think the affirmative should be prepared debates about other actors. Example: If the affirmative is defending the USFG should implement a policy, but it's better done at a state/local level, that's a legitimate argument for the negative. You're not going to convince me that it isn't the negative's ground without a really good reason. 2: If while researching, the negative finds a better idea than what the resolution calls for to solve a specific problem, the affirmative should be able to defend their action in comparison. If you want an example, you'll have to wait until after May 5th because I'm not giving my debater's strategy away. My point being, if the affirmative says the US should do x because it will provide educational opportunities to people who don't give them now and the negative is able to say that x is a bad idea compared to y then I think that the affirmative chose the ground and the negative found something within that ground to argue.

Jason Newman Paradigm

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Truc Nguyen Paradigm

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Kayla Nott Paradigm

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Tracy O'Brien Paradigm

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Kathleen O'Brien Paradigm

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I am an old school "Get off my lawn" kind of judge. I have been an assistant debate coach for 16 years and I was a high school debater but not college. I prefer real world arguments with normal impacts nuke war and extinction really annoy me. I hate spreading and will stop listening if you word vomit on me. I can handle speed but double clutching and not clearly reading tags will be a problem. I am being forced to do an electronic ballot but that DOES NOT mean I want a flash of your stuff. I HATE KRITIKS but will vote on it if it is the only thing in the round. I prefer nontopical counterplans and will tolerate generic DAs if the links are specific. I like stock issues and policy impact calculus. I like quality analytical arguments. Teams who read good evidence not just camp and wiki stuff will get my vote.

Valerie Orth Paradigm

4 rounds

Speaking with my daughter has really shaped me as a judge. If I can't understand the Affirmative team's plan during the first constructive then it is hard for me to root for them. I like to hear their points clearly, then the supporting evidence fluid and quick, but not mumbled. I like when the Negative team specifically identifies the stock issues or off case arguments.

If either team gets angry or offensive during a round I do not favor them for the rest of the round. I judge fairly and never allow my personal beliefs affect my decision.

Jeremiah Ortiz Paradigm

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Danny Park Paradigm

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Preston Peer Paradigm

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"I used to be with ‘it’, but then they changed what ‘it’ was. Now what I’m with isn’t ‘it’ anymore and what’s ‘it’ seems weird and scary. It’ll happen to you!" -Grandpa Simpson

Name- Preston Peer

School-Goddard High School

# of years debated in HS- 4 What School(s) -Wichita Heights, Wichita Northwest

# of years debated in College- 2 What College/University(s)- Kansas State, Wichita State

Currently a (check all that apply)

____Head HS Coach

X- Asst. HS Coach

____College Coach

_____College Debater

X- Debate Fan who regularly judges HS debate

#of rounds on this year’s HS Topic-1 (10ish Novice and JV)

Feelins bout stuff-

What paradigm best describes your approach to debate? - Closest to is a policymaker. It's how I was taught, and where I'm most comfortable. However, I try to be open minded, and you should debate how you are most comfortable. I like being told why and how I should vote.

What do you think the Aff burdens should be? I like things that stick to the resolution. Kritik affs are fine, but you will have a hard time getting my vote if you don't relate to the resolution, or defend a stable "plan text". I'm old and boring: I still think the aff should, like, affirm the resolution in some way. Other than that, I'm open to debate about what the aff should be doing.

What do you think the Neg burdens should be? Prove the aff is a bad idea, or doesn't fall under the resolution. How you want to do that is up to you, but I do have a bias towards a good policy debate.

How I feel about delivery (slow vs. fast)? Fast is fine, but I much prefer clear and efficient. Top speed is not as important as clarity and word economy. My ear is bad on its best day, and I'm severely out of practice

How I feel about generic Disads, Counter Plans, Kritiks? They're fine. Specific is always better, but I get it. Run your stuff.

How I feel about case debates? cool Case debates are the best.

Other Comments/Suggestions:

I've been involved in debate for 15 years, and every year I find out and learn so much more about not just the topic, but debate as a whole. With that in mind, while I do know some tips and tricks, I know that there is always more to be learned, and because of this, I'm not going to try and pretend to be smarter than I actually am. If I don't get your kritikal argument, or weird framework, or whatever other argument, I'm not going to vote for it, and I don't care how dumb I look. You should still be able to explain to a person of mediocre intelligence (me) what the heck you are arguing, and if you can't, I'm not going to do the work for you.

On a similar note, I am loathe to take evidence at the end of a debate, or spend much more than a few minutes at most deciding who won. I am not of the belief that the debaters should hand the judge a messy round and expect them to do the work of finding out who won. I make a real effort to judge based on what is said in the round. With this in mind, i prefer good analysis to anything else. Don't get dragged down too much into the line by line. 1 good argument beats 4 bad arguments in response. Tell me why, how, and where you are winning the debate. Overviews make me happy.

Final note: debate is, by its nature, an adversarial activity. I get that. That doesn't give anyone carte blanche to be a jerk. Be kind and respectful to one another. Ya'll are high school debaters. It is okay to step back and acknowledge the humanity of the other team you are facing. This is important, and you should give as much as you can to win the round, but no ones life hangs in the balance. Being mean, snooty, or condescending hurts your speaks more than being bad at debate. This applies to coaches, too. The "Aloof Debater Affect" everyone puts on at these tournaments is not only unnecessary, it makes you all look ridiculous, too. Lighten up, everyone. Having said all that, debate is a confrontational activity, so you don't have to be saccharine and fake. Sarcasm and deadpan make me happy.

Good luck and have fun to all debaters. Please ask questions for clarity.

Jennifer Pham Paradigm

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Bobby Phillips Paradigm

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Put me on the email chain: (yes I know). If the tourney doesn't allow it, I won't tell on you for having one.

***I don't want to use speech drop, just make an email chain****

I debated at Kapaun Mt. Carmel (2018) in high school and am currently a sophomore debating at Wichita State. I've been a 2n my whole career if that matters. I primarily research and read policy stuff. My involvement with the arms sales topic is pretty limited, but I can probably figure things out. I won't know much about debate trends in the topic.

NSDA Note - do your thing. I have been to this tournament myself and realize that panels mean you might have to do a weird mixing of styles. I have experience in more traditional lay debate from high school. It's not my favorite, but I understand if you need to or if that is your type of thing. Don't change how you debate for me. My paradigm is mostly a collection of my thoughts and preconceptions not a hard set of rules.


- I will probably flow on paper, and probably won't have any.

- I try to hold myself to the same standard I expect out of judges when I am debating. I care a lot about debate and think it's an amazing activity. I cannot promise that I will always make the best decision possible, but I can promise that I will put as much effort as possible into that decision. Debates are hard and stressful and I don't think that asking a lot of questions constitutes "charging the mound." I get frustrated with decisions too and will do my best to help you work through that but at some point you just end up burning a lot of your own energy on something you cannot change. I won't take a post round personally.

- I care about quality of evidence and who wrote your card can matter a lot to me. Cards that are qualified but don't make an argument are still bad cards.

- I care about cx. I tend to think of it as a speech and if no one gets anything out of three minutes of speech time then they are making a mistake.

- Read your framing page, but please answer the DA too.

- If you clip you lose.

- I think speaker points are important and are meant to reward good debating. I don't like to have a list of what earns certain speaks. I know it is impossible to be perfectly accurate but I try to make my speaks as reflective of the rest of the judging pool and division I am in as possible. If I think you should break or get a speaker award, I will try to give speaks to reflect that.


-I feel like people get lost in the "20 uniqueness cards therefore risk of a link outweighs" thing. 1% risk of a link with 100% uniqueness is still 1% risk of a DA

-Politics - Big fan. These debates, at there best, are usually about evidence quality. Strait turns are underrated - this goes for all DAs

- Big disad debates are great but can get messy.


- Read em, maybe a lot of them. Be bold, re-cut their cards, read lots of planks, do whatever, if you can defend it.

- Since I don't know much about the topic as far as the activity is concerned, I probably won't really have an opinion on "x counterplan is too good." This just means you need to give me a bit of an illustration of why it is so scary. My initial thought to "it beats our aff" is that you should make a better aff. If there is a real problem with it, I need more explanation than "it's hard to answer"

- Judge kick is a thing that I find difficult to deal with. I think it's probably implied by condo, but it's a lot less stressful for me if say it in the block. I try to avoid bringing my own thoughts into debate, but not having an argument happen until the 2nr makes that really difficult.

- competition can mean a lot of things, and maybe even things that aren't in the plan text. Net benefits are usually the best way to compete, but I love these kinds of debates. Not the ones that are just 10 cards that say "x = immediate" - those are sad


- I think that quality definitions are important and can justify a slightly less limited topic if that is what those words actually mean. Bad topic writing can also justify a bit more arbitrary T violations.

-Limits are not an impact alone - explain what affs they include and why those are bad. Abstractly limits can have an impact but are much better when contextualized - affs need to be more willing to say limits bad.

-fairness is pretty great, in T debates with plans I don't think it's too hard to win that it is the most important.

-I don't usually understand what argument people are even making when they say reasonability, but if you make it persuasive I guess I could vote on it.


- I am pretty convinced condo is good. If they drop it then it's bad, but don't make it the A strat. 1ars are usually way too light on this debate anyway.

- I don't think you need to answer "x counterplan is bad" if you are kicking the counterplan. I probably won't flow it, so I appreciate the break ig.

K affs

- Most of my thoughts about these are in my thoughts below, but a few general things: I tend to look for substantive things I can identify as a "thesis" of the aff. This usually comes in the form of how you solve something. If I cannot figure out that fundamental question, I will be struggling to sort anything out. You can really take whatever angle on form or content you want, but I need to have something to explain in an RFD.

Framework / neg vs Ks

- I actually really like framework debates. Everyone has a bias about this stuff and I guess if I had to take a side I would be more neg, but I vote aff in these debates more than even I thought I would. You should do you if I am in the back, but I need a strong idea what I am voting for on either side.

- My biggest frustration in these debates is that both sides refuse to make decisions. An overview of your 1nc/2ac is not a rebuttal. Pick something you are winning and focus the rest of the debate through that.

- Fairness can "be an impact." Everything is an internal link, but I can and have voted on fairness outweighs. Impact turns are the way to go for the aff most of the time. Neg args about the process of debate you create instead of the subject matter you talk about is usually more persuasive to me. Things like clash seem like more strategic arguments then learning about the government is good.

- TVAs can do a lot of work, but you have to explain it. Reading a card about an aff impact is not a TVA. I think discussions of how they can solve aff education arguments on framework are more persuasive than how they can solve the aff. This is also a note for aff teams.

- If you are going for a K, I would say that I'm pretty sympathetic to the neg on what exactly meets the standards of competition. That being said, the aff should still probably get perms even if this is a "method debate." I feel like more things than just the advocacy statement can be grounds for competition. Cards you read, ideas you support, and impact claims you make could definitely be a reason the alt is exclusive with the aff. I know this seems like a double standard with policy affs, but really you advocate a lot more than a ten word statement.

- I think neg teams spend a lot of time focusing on having a link and answering the perm (as they should) but forget about a real impact story. A small risk of a link isn't that important if there is no real impact to it. I feel like links should just be DAs to the aff and need a meaningful impact beyond "makes the perm harder."

Ks vs policy affs

- The alt is very important to me. How does it solve your links. If it doesn't then you probably don't have a unique disad to the aff. Solve stuff and we should be good. Links turning case can be great, but if you can't solve it you're just asking me to vote for defense to the advantage.

-Links seem to generally be the most important part of these debates for me. An impact overview at the top of the 2nc doesn't really explain why the links matter. Give each link an impact story. Shotgunning 12 links isn't going to result in no perm if the aff drops one. Tell me what they did, why its bad or turns their other stuff, and why it's more important than the aff.

- I think the aff should get their aff. Even if other considerations are important, I don't know how the aff could ever win if they get none of their offense. I think it will a pretty hard to get me to think differently on this one. Framework is really just a question of what matters more, not if they get to imagine the aff happens or not.

- perms are an aff argument. They can solve a lot of links.



-death good

-"perms are a neg arg"

-process CPs

-debate bad


- putting a date accessed on your cards - if i noticed you did this and you cut the card, I will be happy

- actually "reading" cards, like with your brain, not your mouth

-the topic counter plan that everyone thinks is cheating this year (this is for every year, probably)

-agenda politics (sad atm :c )


-impact turns

-plans/ alts that do big things (but not too big)

-limits good

Andy Powner Paradigm

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Brooke Pritchett Paradigm

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Taylor Reynolds Paradigm

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Michelle Rodriguez Paradigm

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Never Rose Paradigm

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I want to be on the email chain: xo never rose @ gmail dot com


I am a debater at UMKC and debated in high school through the MNUDL. I coach at the middle school and high school level. I will be fairly familiar with a variety of critical lit but might need help with resolutional questions (explain your acronyms)

Debate how you debate and I'll do my best to follow.

Arms Sales 19/20: I am not the best judge for Israel good debates. I have historical knowledge about Taiwan Israel and KSA but less knowledge on say what happened last week.

Theory: I don't believe in adding infinite reasons to prefer later. Suburban (TM) theory arguments still don't make sense to me. Examples include: Framers intent and T is anti-educational because it's theory.

Kritiks: I am not a fan of critiques without alternatives-this doesn't mean alternatives have to be clear cut but I feel like on the HS level people just refuse to defend anything. Tell me about your vision of the world or at least what your world isn't.

Affirmatives are most likely to win my ballot vs framework impact by prioritizing offense in the 2AR. That being said I like framework esp if you have more creative reasons to prefer.

Things to know that are less important:

I like when you pull quotes and recut your opponents cards. I like when people are strong speakers off the cuff.

I most often read entire card texts during prep time. I write down CX and value it a lot, I find it frustrating when people refuse to answer questions.

Caroline Rowley Paradigm

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Daniel Saunders Paradigm

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I debated for four years at Andover Central high school, four years at Wichita State University (career was 2010-2018) and am an assistant coaching for Derby high school. As a debater, I have gone for K and policy arguments both. I spent my first and fourth years in college debating mostly policy stuff but my 2nd and 3rd year debating mostly K stuff. I believe it is important not to bring any arbitrary rules to judging a round and I am willing to evaluate the arguments as they are presented rather than according to some preconceived paradigm. With that said, I have a number of thoughts about debate that I default to and will do my best to lay out my potential biases.


General things - Talk as fast as you feel comfortable, I will say ‘clear’ if I can't understand you. The less clear you are, the more difficult it is for me to hear the warrants of your evidence which means I will give it less relative weight as the debate proceeds.

I really appreciate it when teams will front load their arguments by putting neat labels at the front of the explanation. Also, I'm really bad at catching author names so try to extend your evidence with some reference to the tag or warrants. Having a last name doesn't hurt but isn't really necessary. I am annoyed when a rebuttal sound more like a bibliography than a persuasive speech.

I try to review the minimal amount of evidence necessary to make my decision and won't give much credibility to warrants within evidence that weren't also extended in the rebuttals. The gist of what I'm saying here is I'm more interested in what you have to say than what your cards have say.

Charts have gotten really big recently which is good but if you think your evidence is awesome because it has a lot of charts, you should be prepared to explain what they mean and why they are good. Just having a chart in a card is not necessarily self-explanatory. Just like you have to explain your cards, you should have to explain your charts.

I believe the minimal threshold for the extension of an argument is a claim and warrant. I don't care if you think your opponent dropped something, a blip of the tagline doesn't count as extending it.

My body language isn't a reliable indicator of how I feel about your argument.

Prep time - Cross-ex is three minutes long. As soon as the timer goes off, you're entitled to stop answering the question. Please be cooperative and courteous in cross-ex. I absolutely hate it when it takes a whole minute to answer a simple question because someone is trying to show off how cool they are. If a team wants to take prep to ask more questions, the other team isn't obligated to answer those questions but can if they want to. I may stop listening after the prep time starts though.

Disadvantages and counterplans - There isn't really much to be said here. DAs and CPs are an essential component of negative strategy. Counterplan theory stuff is below.

I believe that if the negative wins a conditionality argument, I have the option of judge kicking a counterplan even if the negative doesn't make an argument. The status quo is always an option.

Framework vs Critical affs - my personal preference is that the affirmative team reads a topical plan.

I think policy teams that treat framework like T and go almost exclusively for procedural fairness are making a strategic mistake. Even if you are right that framework makes the game work, you also gotta tell me why playing that game is good. My preference is that you just have a defense of why policy debate is good because it produces some skills/subjectivities/education/etc which outweigh k offense.

However, if you have a very strong topical version of the aff, I tend to me more inclined to the purely procedural fairness version. In all other cases, you are advised to go for some type of education offense.

When executing a topical version of the aff, it is the negative's burden to show how it resolves the aff's offense rather than the aff's burden to show it doesn't. Just like when the neg introduces a counterplan, they have to show how the counterplan resolves each of the aff's advantages. The neg block is advised to have a fairly lengthy discussion of the TVA where they discuss what parts of the 1ac and 2ac they resolve and why. People act like its game-over unless the 1AR has 5 or 6 good responses. T version will probably solve some of the aff's offense but it is not a round-winner by itself. You should generally focus more on winning your education offense outweighs their business.

Theory/T - I hold the team being accused of a theory violation to a higher standard than your average judge. I feel like too often teams get away with extremely lazy or non-sensical defenses of conditionality or pics or whatever. Although reasonability versus competing interpretations is a debate you can and should have in front of me, I find myself more compelled by the competing interpretations side of things. Don't tell me about whether potential or actual abuse really occurred or not. It's not very persuasive. The better strategy is to tell me why your interpretation is better. The absolute most important argument in topicality debates is proving your intepret limits outs a certain kind of aff and those affs are bad or includes a certain kind of aff and those affs are good. Everything else are pretty trivial. The magnitude of abuse needed to justify a ballot for theory is relative and not absolute. Those thoughts apply to both topicality and counterplan theory. All that said, you have to be very thorough when going for a theory argument. Simply saying 'delay counterplans are cheating because time skew' is not enough.

Kritiks - framework - The most important move you can make in a K debate is have a clearly defined, well-defended framework argument that tells me what we are doing when we are debating. Are we comparing policy actions or are we comparing sociological theories of violence or are we comparing the effectiveness of political performances? If both teams win that their thing should be included (i.e. we should weigh plans and ontologies) it often results in impossible comparisons. How do I compare the benefits of a plan to the benefits of an ontology? Personally, I don't think that can be done. You should make sure your framework describes some role for the other teams stuff but a role that that allows for comparisons. Simply put, a neg framework argument that just says I should include ontology in my decision is useless. A neg framework that says I should exclude considerations of the plan in favor of exclusive ontological analysis is preferable. I have seen a lot of talented K debaters loss in front of me because they had an incoherent or non-existent framework argument. Don't let it happen to you.

Experience - In terms of literature, I am most familiar with Lacanian psychoanalysis, Marxism, & Deleuze but have passing knowledge of the basic arguments in most bodies of literature.

Perm - It is the aff's burden to explain why the perm solves the links rather than the neg burden to explain why it doesn't. I don't mean to say that the neg doesn't have to answer perms. You obviously should. But if the 2ac only says "perm do both" and the 1ar repeats the phase, I think of that as the same as a claim without a warrant. A better approach is to say "the perm solves link #1 [blah blah blah], the perm solves link #2," etc. Meanwhile, the neg is best served by explaining why their links are resilient to the perm rather than reading a list of generic perm DAs.

Rachelle Schrader Paradigm

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Kathleen Seiwert Paradigm

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James Sherwood Paradigm

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Kenton Strait Paradigm

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Melissa Swauncy Paradigm

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Background: 1 year High School Debate (Policy). 1 year debate at Hawaii Pacific University (Worlds). 2 Years Debate at Middle Tennessee State University (IPDA/NPDA) . 5 years teaching and developing high school and middle school curriculum for Metro Memphis Urban Debate League (Policy), 2 years as assistant debate coach at Wichita East High (Policy, LD), currently Assistant Debate Coach at Boston Latin School (PFD)

Overall Philosophy: I believe in quality over quantity. Clear argumentation and analysis are key to winning the round. I like hearing clear voters in rebuttals . While I don't mind a nice technical debate, I love common sense arguments more. Pay attention to your opponent's case. Recognize interactions between different arguments and flows and bring it up in CX and in speeches. Exploit contradictions and double-turns. Look for clear flaws, don't be afraid to use your opponent's evidence against them. Be smart.


Topicality: I am VERY broad in my interpretation of topicality. Thus, only use Topicality if you truly have a truly legitimate cause to do so. I am not a fan of hearing T just to take up time or for the sake of throwing it on the flow. I will only vote for T if is truly blatant or if the aff does not defend.

Ks: If you are unsure how to run a K, then don't do it. I expect solid links to case, and a strong alternative. "Reject Aff" is not a strong alternative. Again, use if you have legitimate cause, not just to take up time or to have something extra on the flow.

Conditionality: I believe "Condo Bad" 89% of the time.

Critical Affs: If you are unsure how to run a K, then don't do it.

DAs: Make sure you link and make your impact clear.

CPs: Your CP MUST be clearly mutually exclusive and can NOT just piggy back off of your opponent's plan. Generic CPs rarely win with me.

Speed: I don't mind speed as long as you're speaking clearly.

Fiat: I don't mind fiats AS LONG AS THEY MAKE SENSE. Please don't fiat something that is highly improbable (IE: All 50 states doing a 50 state counterplan on a issue several states disagree with)

Tag Team Debate/ Open CX: For me personally, both partners may answer but only one may ask. UNLESS tournament rules state something different. Then we will abide by tournament rules.
Decorum: Be respectful, stay away from personal attacks. Rudeness to your opponent or partner will guarantee you lowest speaks out of all speakers in the round, personal attacks will net you the lowest speak I can give you.

If you have any other questions, please feel free to ask me before the round begins.

Amy Torkelson Paradigm

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Jose Valencia Paradigm

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William VanScooter Paradigm

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Koby Walker Paradigm

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Trinity Wedel Paradigm

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I did policy debate for four years at Derby High School in Kansas and this is my second year debating for Wichita State University- also my second year coaching at Wichita Northwest.


I will default to the framing arguments made in the debate. That being said if you don’t give me a way to use my ballot I default to Policy Maker. I am cool with speed but I do still think that debate is a communication activity and persuasion techniques along with judge adaptation goes a long way.


If you go for it make it the whole 2NR- I generally default to Competing Interpretations. Lit checks abuse is not an offensive reason to vote affirmative. I do accept SPEC arguments because they are basically T.

I am particularly persuaded by framework- I do think however if the 1AC is identity then you should probably go for education/policy making good and not fairness. If you wanna win vs a K aff you need to have compelling arguments why their offense can be resolved or minimized with a TVA. I will still vote for a plan-less aff, so if that’s your style... go for it.


I think condo is a voter but not if they read one CP and 7 DAs- read some impact D and stop wasting my time. In round abuse is very important to me if you go for this, also detailed stories of potential abuse would be useful in winning my ballot. I love neg CP fiat.

I don't think I lean a certain way on any other theory arguments.


Love 'em. Duh-read specific links if you have them but analytical link stories that are logical will also win my ballot. I like 2NCs on the DA and case. If you go for the DA you must start the 2NR with the impact work an impact calculus to frame the way I should filter the rest of the speech.


Also love 'em- I like the tricky ones like the delay CP (that's my shit). I'm cool with object fiat but I tend to lean aff on theory if the negative does not answer it very well- your blippy "don't reject the team" won't win my ballot. If the 2AR is just 5 minutes of CP theory that's boring.


After my first year in college debate I have radically changed my views on the Kritik. I am comfortable with K affs but I do believe you should relate your arguments with the current topic. I will probably understand the thesis level of your arguments but in depth comparisons and explanation of your theory is NECESSARY to win my ballot. I am particularly interested in the gender K's and that's what I debate consistently so that's the kind of K debate I would be the best at judging. The only way you can win my ballot if you kick the alternative is having very good ‘our link is a case turn’ arguments.


No I don't think there are rules in debate. Yes I do think you can cheat. DO NOT steal prep- I will try to find a way to vote against you if I see you do it. If you want to delete analytics off of a speech document you can use your prep time to do it. Don't clip cards. I will not accept hatefulness toward the other team however I do think snarky comments and really bad dad jokes make the debate more entertaining. Jokes during speeches are also appreciated and will probably raise your speaker points. I won't judge kick anything for you so don't waste your speech time telling me I can.

Katie Western Paradigm

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Chris Wills Paradigm

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Kayla Young Paradigm

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