Middle School TOC hosted by UK

2018 — KY/US

Sumeer Benawra Paradigm

3 rounds

I have taught Lincoln Douglas and Public Forum debate since 2011 on the Illinois High School circuit, including a state champion. I am open to theory arguments and am a squarely flow-based judge. I can handle 'moderate' speed, but not full out spreading especially if I haven't heard the argument before. I have a relatively high requirement for terminal impact arguments, but will certainly consider them.

Erin Guiney Paradigm

6 rounds

LD paradigm: I’ve judged novice and varsity high school LD infrequently for the past 4 years but have never coached it or competed it in. My experience is with Congress and PF, so I need framework, clear impacts, and weighing. Keep your speeches structured and signpost so your opponent (and me) can find things in the flow. I can handle speed as long as you don’t need a breathing pattern (you can “spread”, but don’t SPREAD)/if you plan to spread email me and your opponent your case. I will shout clear twice if you go too fast. If you run a kritik you need to know what it means, be able to explain it clearly, and be able to link it back in to argue for why it matters. Feel free to ask me specifics in round.

For Congress:

60% presentation, 40% content. There MUST be refutation in every speech after the authorship. If you speak twice on the same bill I will drop you. If you refer to male competitors as 'representative' and female competitors as 'Ms.' I will drop you. Please give me impacts and ask questions often.

For PF:

I'm not going to time you. I'm not going to flow cross. As long as you're not an LD or Policy debater turned PF debater, I'll be fine with your speed. I need impacts, please, and clear taglines. Organization is a huge thing for me. It is not my job to weigh the round for you, so you need to be doing impact calculus and giving me key voters all the way through. SIGNPOST. If you are rude in cross I will give you low speaks and I will want to drop you. Also I do not flow the authors of your cards are so if you refer to cards by the author only I am not going to be able to find it on my ballot-give me a source name, a key word or phrase, something.

Email: erinmguiney@gmail.com

Genevieve Hackman Paradigm

6 rounds

University of Kentucky ‘20

add me to the email chain: genevieveelise1028 at gmail dot com

Policy Things

Disad and case is awesome, more case analysis that is smart will be rewarded in points. I think smart and specific counterplans are cool. Process counterplans usually are annoying and bad but that relies on the AFF being able to explain the reasons that is true. The more specific and in grounded in the literature your CP is, the less likely I am to care about theory.

I think a limited topic is good and care immensely about the comparison of one version of the topic to another when it comes to T. If you cannot explain coherently what the difference between the two topics are, I am much less likely to care about your very abstract appeals to the notion of limits or ground.

The K

I judge K's as I would any other argument - I think they need to have a clearly explained link, internal link, impact, and alternative. I default to being a policymaker unless I am convinced I should do something else. Being more specific about the topic is far better than some random backfile check about Baudrillard. You should explain your arguments, saying words that vaguely refer to a concept does not constitute defending it as an argument.

Planless Affs

I have found myself voting both ways in framework debates, but am usually persuaded by the benefits of clash, procedural fairness, etc. However, I think I find myself voting aff most often when the aff has a well articulated impact turn to the resolution that beats the topical version of the aff. I generally find that if you defend that the direction of the resolution is a good idea, having a very concrete defense of why defending the resolution itself is bad is going to be the crucial focal point of the debate. Clash is a terminal impact.

Things I believe that you can convince me I am wrong about with enough debating:

conditionality is good

judge kick is good

the politics disad is a barren wasteland

fiat is good


death is bad (I will consider this a reason to vote you down and give you a 0)

Misc Quirks/Things that could impact points:

I will take you asking the team for a doc that only has cards they read after the speech as a sign that you cannot flow and will assign points accordingly. There are egregious examples of documents in which this is acceptable, but that is rare.

Be efficient about your time: don't waste time between ending prep and giving a speech

Time your own speech and prep

My facial expressions are likely unrelated to the things you are saying. The only emotion you should assume I have is tired.

Evidence ethics (out of context? straw-person? lied about quals? cut in middle of paragraph?) should be debated out like any other theory argument. Claiming you said words you did not say is an L.

Being racist, sexist, violent, etc. in a way that is immediately and obviously hazardous to someone in the debate = L and 0. My role as educator > my role as any form of disciplinarian, so I will err on the side of letting stuff play out - i.e. if someone used gendered language and that gets brought up I will probably let the round happen and correct any ignorance after the fact. This ends when it begins to threaten the safety of round participants. Where that line is is entirely up to me.

Joshua Kendrick Paradigm

6 rounds

Policy Debate- I am a very flexible judge. I am willing to listen to anything as long as it is impacted well. I am open to K affs, but if it is not explained well enough I will vote you down. I would rather not call for cards, but I will if I have to. Another thing, I really want to hear impacts. I do not like debates that are like two ships passing by in the night. It turns into who I think did better, but as debaters you should write the ballot out for me. Please try to keep email chains and or flashing time to a decent time. If it takes too long I will start taking prep away unless, there are tech issues. Clipping cards is not okay with me, if I catch you clipping card I will vote you down. If you steal prep I will take away a lot of speaker points. Please be clear if you are spreading!

LD- My experience is mainly in policy debate. I don't mind how fast that you read, but make sure that you are reading loud and clearly. I also evaluate things based on the flow pretty much. Make sure things are extended and analyzed well. Also, make sure there is clash in the round! I cannot stand under views -_- There is no reason to have one because you spend so much time in it and never go back to it in the round. That analysis can be done somewhere else like in one of your other contentions or adding a whole new contention. Impact analysis is something that is very important to me! You should be writing my ballot for me and much as possible!

John Lewellen Paradigm

6 rounds

Not Submitted

Stephani Lopez Paradigm

6 rounds

Phoenix Military Academy 16

University of Kentucky 20

Top level

I measure a debate based off of how well you interact with one another. Clash is important and if you’re not engaging you’re opponent you’re not debating. The more evidence comparison the better.

You should do your best to frame the debate round for me. Tell me how I should sign my ballot.

I don’t take time for flashing, and yes, put me on the email chain: stephanimarlopez@gmail.com


They’re fine.

Except consult and process CPs. These counterplans are infinitely regressive to the point where you can just say "Consult my neighbor then do the plan." If you want to go for one of these CPs you have to have pretty great cards saying why your specific process is detrimental to the success or failure of the aff. I will vote on it but very rarely.


The weirder they get the more explanation you’re going to have to give. I am accustomed to the more mainstream identity and anti-state Ks such as: Eco-fem, Neolib, Anthro, and Wilderson.

I will not kick an alt and use it as a DA toward the case. If you want to win on a K you have to win why the alternative is a better option than the aff.

I will most likely always grant you a link, but you have to properly contextualize it the aff.

Clash is important, and I’m docking your speaks if half of the 2NC is an overview.

K Affs

Aff Ks are cool. You need to show me how your aff interacts with the neg as well.

If it follows the rez: cool

If it doesn't defend anything: cool

If it does defend things: cool

If it doesn’t follow the rez: You need explain why your model of debate is a better than the resolution. In other words, why should I evaluate your form of the debate? You also need a reason as to why it can’t be done under the resolution.


Usually not convincing


You have to go all in for me to vote on it, but keep in mind 17 DA’s are as shitty as 3 CPs/Ks


Clipping will be dealt with accordingly

Any hurtful comments referring to (but not limited to) gender, sexuality, or race is not going to be tolerated.

My name is Stephani not judge.

My pronouns are she/her.

Puns are highly encouraged. Here's my favorite: Why did the bicycle fall over? Because it was too tired! Hah Also Ill boost your speaker points if you reference My Hero Academia as I am currently obsessed with it.

If you have any questions or want more feedback about a round shoot me an email!

Mike Murray Paradigm

6 rounds

I spent 9 years as a debater at the college( Diablo Valley College and CSU Long Beach) and high school ( De La Salle HS, Concord, Ca) levels. I am now in my 7th year of coaching and my 9th year of judging. So I've heard almost every argument out there. I mostly competed in parli and policy, but I did some LD as well. I am ok with Kritiks, Counter Plans, and plans. I like good framework and value debate. I am cool with spreading but articulation is key!!! I am a flow judge so sign posting and organization is important. Please weigh impacts and give me voters. In LD make sure you link to a framework and a value and explain why you win under those guidelines. I prefer a more traditional LD debate and I defiantly prefer truth over tech.

Jacinda Rivas Paradigm

6 rounds

Jacinda Rivas

Whitney Young ‘15

University of Kentucky ‘19

Currently working as a paralegal at a civil rights law firm and coaching Whitney Young

Top Level

Add me to the email chain- Jacindarivas@gmail.com

I will reward smart teams that can effectively and efficiently communicate their arguments to me. Engaging with your opponent, having a well-thought out strategy, and demonstrating that you’re doing consistent, hard work is what this activity is about.

I'm pretty expressive when I'm judging so I would look up every once in a while to know how I feel about particular arguments.

Clash debates

First things first- Everyone is always so angry and doesn’t want to be in these debates. No one ENJOYS clash debates. Please be nicer. Substance wise, I really do believe that affs should have a tie to the topic and should be in the direction of the topic. I am not the judge for an aff that has a couple cards that say a theory and then pretend to say something about the topic. I also believe that debate is an inherently good activity so indicting the entirety of the activity we participate in is not great for me. I think this matters a lot for the way some teams answer framework so be cognizant of this. The only thing that my ballot decides is the winner.


Links should be causal, specific and about the plan. They NEED to be contextualized to what the aff actually did. I have too often judged debates where a team presents a theory of the world but have not explained what the aff has done to implicate that. Explanation is key. That applies to all Ks cause if you are just spitting jargon at me and the other team, you aren’t gonna have a good time. I am not persuaded by arguments that the aff just doesn’t get fiat

I didn't think I had to add this to my paradigm but recent events means I do. In order for me to vote for you, you have to speak.


I default to judge kick unless expressly informed not to

I am a little nicer for the aff in terms of CP theory questions- I just think that some counterplans are egregious but that might be the 2a in me. I think this can be dealt with a lot more easily if you have a substantive competition push from the neg.

Conditionality is good.


There can be zero risk of a DA

Politics DA is dead and we should all let it die

Framing Pages

I don’t like them. Read impacts. Spend more time developing the actual advantage instead of preempting the random disad that the 1nc might read.

Random Policy Things

You can insert a re-highlighting of a card- you shouldn’t have to waste time re-reading a card if they suck at research

Impact turn debates are some of my favorite

Ethics violations (ex. Clipping, a card being cut in the middle of the paragraph, etc.) should just have the debate staked on it. It is a bad form of education and should be rejected. No point in drawing it out.

Further questions- email me at jacindarivas@gmail.com

Alex Rivera Paradigm

6 rounds

Policy Debate

I like being as hands off as possible with framing. Mostly prioritize tech on the flow and give high weight to dropped arguments, but I like broader truth claims. Contextualization and deep analysis will win my ballot, don't just extend evidence through ink. When the case debate becomes card spam back and forth, I look for unpacking arguments, listed warrants, and intelligent applications (ie debating) to decide the debate.

I did policy debate for fours in high school in Kansas. Mostly ran critical arguments, but I love theory and traditional policy debate as well. In fact, I would say that I tend to find big impact clash to have a higher floor in terms of fun debates to watch. I am on my third year of college LD Policy debate at Western Kentucky University.

My area of study and passion is Marxism, but I am comfortable adjudicating most positions. I have the most experience on Deleuze, Baudrillard, Zizek (a little psychoanalysis), and Dean. Wilderson, Sexton, Puar, and some other popular authors are not my expertise, but I do understand the argument okay. Sometimes knowing the argument can make me hold you to a slightly higher standard, albeit unconsciously.

Speed: Yes. 7/10 on tags would be kind of you. I am going to be honest, my main issue is lack of pen time when flipping pages or moving onto the next card, which can put me behind. Without some extra "oomph" on warrants in cards, they won't really find their way onto my flow until the rebuttals. I will not backflow arguments. (Clarity is distinct. Clarity is important for Theory and Analytics.) Speaks are determined by doing smart things with the flow, good word economy, efficiency, etc. Speed is strategic, so do it, but there is something lost in terms of emotive delivery on particular readings - if that's the reaction you want me to have.

Kritiks: Yes. I like and read them a lot, which means I tend to catch when debaters fall for the policy tricks, like extinction sequences, etc. This just means you need to hold steady with root cause claims and weigh them against flashpoints, like error replication arguments on a security k. I tend to adjudicate the debate in terms of method. Policy making is also a method. If you feel as though my ballot has magical powers to instantly make the world a certain way, I will also pretend it does. With that being said, self serving ROB arguments are whack - I like to vote for whoever best justified a method.

K AFFs: Sure. Topicality indicates the adherence to a specific word in the topic, and resolutionality indicates your affirmative literature is in some way tied to the resolution. Violating topicality can be persuasive, but I do not think reading an AFF that has no reference to immigration is persuasive. For some reason I find myself voting slightly more often for the NEG on framework debates - fairness claims are persuasive to me.

Topicality: Yes (I don't like RVIs, and it doesn't take much for me to become skeptical of them.)

Impact Turns: Yes (Dedev, Spark, Ice Age is all good, but I will not vote for Imperialism/racism good args. Yes you can still try to o/w everything with your little Bostrom evidence, but just be tactful about it, not offensive.)

Case: It helps. I think case debate is a lost art that I have always found enjoyable and strategic. Hopefully you feel the same :D

CPs: Yes (Always make perms, but I'm not sure I can vote for ones, even if conceded, that functionally make no sense unless explained, ie perming an ADV CP that competes because of a DA)

Theory: Yes. Please no "Ks" are bad theory. You can read reasons why PIKs are bad, but "Ks bad" is just like "DAs bad". A good spec argument can be fun if it is actually decent. (Usually prefer some abuse, but not necessary)

Disclosure: Show me that your Wiki is good on AFF and NEG after the round and I'll give you one speaker point.



See most of policy above. I understand that LD is a more predominately theory oriented event, and thus I am more willing to vote for compelling renditions of more non-traditional theory arguments. However, there is a certain stopping point on this. I do not believe that Spec the Status w/ a ground impact is super compelling if your ground argument is that you couldn't read condo, which is just another theory argument. Please make the theory warranted and intrinsically related to real ground. I don't think a closed circuit of reference between theoretical positions is compelling.

T: Sure, you can win it. You can also lose it. I don't need proven abuse, just sell a vision of debate that I should abide by. I love kritikal affs to do the same thing, unless the whole point is to advocate for chaotic unpredictability, in which case I can also vote for that, just make that a compelling argument.

Substance: I tend to adjudicate the debate in terms of method. LARP is also a method. If you feel as though my ballot has magical powers to instantly make the world a certain way, I will also pretend it does. With that being said, self serving ROB arguments are whack - I like to vote for whoever best justified a method.

Blips: I don't like them. If it's super blippy and I don't understand the argument, I'll have difficulty voting for them even if they are conceded. I need to be able to read a ballot back to someone in the RFD and defend why I voted a certain way, which I can't do if I don't even understand why I voted a certain way.

Disclosure: Show me that your Wiki is good on AFF and NEG after the round and I'll boost you one speaker point.



There are a lot of things that irk me about PF in terms of evidence. I think that cards are always better than paraphrasing (although I understand that strategic incentives will push both sides to do so). Be kind about evidence, it is good for clashful debate and more interesting for the judge if you are.

Speaker points: I look for academic language, intelligent interactions and cross applications on the flow, clarity in speaking (different than speed, I am definitely a faster flow than you can speak), and general persuasiveness. Humor and control in crossfire, as long as it is not too mean, is definitely appreciated.

Weird arguments: I am probably a much better judge for voting on those arguments than most you will encounter. I love a GOOD theory and kritik debate. I love impact turns, even the nasty ones like spark. I am not super persuasded by whining about arguments (ie "I shouldn't have to defend the liberal hegemony theory of the PRO!"), but if you unpack that argument in strong theoretical foundations like fairness, equitable burden, etc. I am more than willing to vote on that. I do think alts in PF are probably kind of whack.

The most important thing: weigh for me please. It is quite likely that whoever has weighed the best will win the round. I need ballot directing language. Do not leave me with a web of unresolved internal link turns, defense, and a poverty vs GDP growth debate when the round is over. I do not like reading evidence too much, and odds are if you hand me a PDF I will be less than enthused to comb through it for the answers I need. I will always default to answers in the round, so if one team has spoon fed me a nice little econ impact and you just kind of threw things at a wall wondering what was gonna stick, you may be in a less than stellar place.

Jasmin Sharp Paradigm

6 rounds


I have been competing in debate for six years. I competed in Policy Debate in highschool and then competed in Parli debate in college. I currently compete with Concordia University Irvine. I have been coaching policy, parli, and LD at the middle and highschool level for two years now.


I am arguably most comfortable with a policy style of debate, since I’ve done so much of it in both policy and parli. That being said, if you’re not introducing a plan, doesn’t mean I won’t enjoy the debate just as much. If you are introducing a plan, I really wanna make sure you have specific solvency for the plan; don’t just say you’re going to do x thing and then not tell me exactly what that thing does. If you’re passing a bill, give me a summary of what the bill does. As far as counterplans go, I'm fine with any of them. I like PICs. I think that the negative always has the right to introduce a counterplan, as long as it's competitive.


I really enjoy value debates. But if you’re going to defend a value, you better know REALLY well what that value means. I don’t want to hear you defend deontology and then not know how deontology functions through your contentions and what it means in the framing of the round.


The tl;dr: I’m good with the K but give me a bit of background on the author you’re reading.

I don’t enjoy the kritik when I’m competing, but I enjoy judging them. I have a lot of experience in kiritical debate and I’ve read a lot of authors and seen a lot of Ks, so I’d like to think I’m pretty well versed. Authors I’ve read that I’d say I’m very comfortable with: Foucault, Baudrillard, hooks, Marx, and Tickner. I’ve read a lot of feminist lit so I’m pretty comfortable with any sort of fem K, and I’ve read a handful of other miscellaneous books as well. That being said, if you’re defending a certain author, be sure to know that author backwards and forwards and be able to explain it to me if I look confused. Approach me like a judge that is good on the K and I’ll keep up, but my non-verbals will tell you if I’m lost. If I’m shaking my head, my head is cocked to the side, or I look confused, please clarify what your thesis is – I haven’t read every book ever and for a lot of Ks I’ll need at least a bit of background. Also, please explain how the alt solves – I don’t care if your alt is political or not, just give me clear solvency for whatever it is.


The tl;dr: I love theory and will vote on it if you give me a good reason to.

I was always a theory debater. I think it can be the fastest and best way to win the round for both sides. I will definitely take into consideration any theory coming out of any speech as long as there’s a substantiated reason for it. But if you’re going to run theory, make sure you have a clear interp and competitive standards. I’ve seen and run pretty much every type of theory imaginable so I understand when there’s a reason for it and will have a pretty low threshold if you defend it well – I’ve run theory in the last speech of the round based on what someone did in the speech before me, so I’m willing to vote on something like that – but if you’re gonna go for it, go for it. Collapse to theory or I won’t buy it. I have run RVIs before and I don’t see them as abusive as long as you give a good defense for why this is a situation when I should vote on an RVI. Don’t just tell me “they ran theory so they should lose,” explain how that situation specifically is an abusive use of theory and why that warrants me dropping them. I love condo debates but I don’t necessarily think that condo is good or bad; I vote for the team that makes the better argument on that. As far as speed procedurals go, run them if you think it’s warranted but if you’re gonna run a speed procedural, you better have called clear at least 3 times and the other team has not slowed down. Basically, as long as you give me substantiated abuse on theory I’ll vote on it but if you give me a reasonable explanation of why you’re not being abusive I’m just as likely to vote for you.

IF YOU RUN A K OR PROCEDURAL ABOUT ABUSIVE BEHAVIOR, ie TRIGGER WARNINGS BEING ABUSED, I WILL STOP THE ROUND TO MAKE SURE ALL THE DEBATERS FEEL SAFE AND ARE WILLING TO CONTINUE. I don’t want to make anyone feel like they are unsafe when they are debating, so PLEASE bring that to my attention and I will do what I can to make you feel safe.

Things I want to see:

The tl;dr: Clash, impacts, and good impact analysis.

If someone argues something and you drop it; it’s unrefuted offense for the other team and I will consider that in my decision. But I won’t always catch every dropped argument so if you see it, call it out. But make sure you’re directly clashing with your opponents’ points. I like seeing good clash in the round and I’d rather see ya’ll collapse to one argument that has good clash on both sides then to see you stick to your blocks and have the round be like two ships passing in the night.

I also realllllllly want to see good impacts. Explain to me why your arguments matter. If you don’t give me a way to evaluate your arguments against what the other team is saying then that leaves me with a ton of responsibility at the end of the round and I’ll pick the argument I like better. I don’t care how big or small your impact is, just tell me why it matters.

I also really want to see impact analysis at the end of the round. Weigh your impacts on probability, timeframe, magnitude, and probability. I need you to compare your impacts to the other side’s a tell me why I should vote for you (and I much prefer to see that then voting issues since the impacts are what matters).

Miscellaneous stuff:

Be nice. People call me a point fairy and I typically am but I have no problem dropping your speaks if you’re rude in round. I have no tolerance for abusive behavior in round and if you’re a total jerk I’ll drop you.

Speed is fine; I can keep up as long as the other team can, and if I can’t I’ll call clear. And if you're a debater and someone is going too fast for you, please call clear or slow - I won't evaluate an argument about speed unless you attempt to get the other team to slow down first.

If you’re reading an argument about sexual assault, violence, or anything similar, please give a content warning at the beginning of the round so everyone is prepared.

I think debate is a game and I vote for the team that does the best debating, so I try not to have hard and fast opinions on debate. The round is what you make it and I’ll adapt to that unless extenuating circumstances force me to otherwise. Good luck!

Preston Stolte Paradigm

3 rounds

Affiliation: Winston Churchill HS
Years Judging: 10

if I have judged you in the past/if I judge you, feel free to fill out this form and I will post responses at the bottom.


TLDR version: no strong ideological debate dispositions, link/perm analysis is good, tech > truth, affs should probably be topical/in the direction of the topic but I'm less convinced of the need for instrumental defense of the USFG. Everything below is insight into how I view/adjudicate debates, its questionably useful and certainly malleable.

***prep time stops when the email is sent, too many teams steal prep while 'saving the doc'***

**if you debate for a school that floods the judge pool with parent judging at national tournaments, you can effectively ignore this paradigm and should expect me to judge you as a parent judge would. if you have to ask does this apply to you/your school, it probably does**

*If you are an LD debater, this should give you a good idea of how to debate in front of me. Feel free to ask more specific questions before the round.*

Long version

Do what you do well: I have no preference to any sort of specific types of arguments these days. Sure, some debates I may find more interesting than others, but honestly the most interesting rounds to judge are ones where teams are good at what they do and they strategically execute a well planned strategy.

This being said, if I am judging you in LD, here are a few things I've realized about myself that you should know: I find myself seeing most 'traditional/phil' strategies to be lacking in offense and largely ill explained; I think bad theory arguments are wildly unpersuasive and generally default to drop the arg; I think 'spikes' (especially when undisclosed) are not arguments and generally give the neg decent amount of leeway to make responses once they actually become warranted arguments.

-Truth v Tech: I find myself more frequently deciding close debates based on questions of truth/solid evidence rather than purely technical skills. This also bleeds into policy v policy debates, as I get older I find myself much more willing to vote on probability/link analysis than magnitude/timeframe; taking claims of "policy discussions good" seriously also means we need to give probability of impacts/solvency more weight.

-Evidence v Spin: Ultimately good evidence trumps good spin. I will accept a debater’s spin until it is contested by the opposing team. I often find this to be the biggest issue with with politics, internal link, and permutation evidence for kritiks.

-Speed vs Clarity: I don't flow off the speech document, I don't even open them until either after the debate or if a particular piece of evidence is called into question. If I don't hear it/can't figure out the argument from the text of your cards, it probably won't make it to my flow. If I say clear it is because I cannot hear/flow you and you probably want me to have your arguments, if you hear me say clear and your opponent doesnt get more clear, I don't see any reason why you shouldn't be able to ask me before CX what arguments I did/did not get on my flow because I don't see why you should have to answer arguments that I didn't even have flowed. this seems to be a problem that is especially true in LD.

-Permutation/Link Analysis: this is becoming an increasingly important issue that I am noticing with kritik debates. I find that permutations that lack any discussion of what the world of the permutation would mean to be incredibly unpersuasive and you will have trouble winning a permutation unless the negative just concedes the perm. Reading a slew of permutations with no explanation as the debate progresses leaves the door wide open for the negative to justify strategic cross applications and the grouping of permutations since said grouping will still probably contain more analysis than the 1AR/2AR.

Speaker points: average = 27.5, I generally adjust relative to the pool when considering how I rank speakers.
-Things that will earn you speaker points: being organized, confidence, well-placed humor, politeness, well executed strategies/arguments.
-Things that will lose you speaker points: arrogance, rudeness, humor at the expense of your opponent, stealing prep, pointless cross examination, running things you don’t understand/just reading blocks

Prep time stops when the email is sent

Survey Results:

If you had to give advice to a team who had this judge in the back of the room, what would you tell them?

--Do whatever you’re good at, he’ll be down for it.

--Read your normal arguments, but make sure you explain them correctly and are able to connect your arguments to the 2nr/2ar explanation.

--read what you feel comfortable explaining and is most strategic in your eyes

On a scale of 1-10 with 1 being the least similar and 10 being the most similar, rate how you thought the round went down matched up to this judge's assessment of the round based on the RFD




What was the quality of this judge's RFD?




What was the quality of this judge's post-round comments?




What areas of scholarship do you feel this judge is familiar with?

--I feel like he has a wide base of knowledge over a broad range of literature, which helps a lot in both Policy v Policy debates and Policy v K debates.

--Topic specific literature of policy affs/DA's and mostly familiar with the literature in the round

--Policy and Kritik

What areas of scholarship do you feel this judge is unfamiliar with?

--Maybe the pomo bs people have are reading (baudrillard, bataille, etc.)

--This was only for a specific post-round question, but the judge wasn't 100% sure about ontology cards to read when aff vs settler colonialism.

--LD Moral Frameworks/LD Analytic Philosophy debates

Do you have any additional comments?

--Very thorough and helpful RFD!


--Make sure to be explicit in not allowing judge intervention, ie "dont kick this for them"

Fargo Tbakhi Paradigm

6 rounds

Not Submitted

Brianna Thomas Paradigm

6 rounds

Email: brithomas1412@gmail.com

Currently a coach for GMU, former debater at Liberty University, 7 years debating experience overall, been to the NDT twice, and have judged all the tingz. After doing both policy and performance debate, I have learned that the most important thing for me is to create a space for myself and the arguments I want to read. Even though I think this is an educational and competitive activity that pays the bills (#schmoney), I still think it should be fun! That being said, my hope is that you will run what you are passionate about! If that's the Econ DA, Anti-blackness K, Fem K, or USFG, then let's get it! DO YOU BOO! This also means that yes debate is a game, but its full of real people and real consequences so we should keep that in mind as we play.

Now I know some debaters still like to worry about what the person in the back of the room thinks so I'll break down some key points.


-Spreading is fine, but be clear and pace yourself as necessary cause if you don't, then it may not get on my flow

-Organization is key. Even if the other team is messy, it puts you in a better position to clear things up for the judge so line by line can help, but final focus should be a balance of line by line and big picture framing

-I'm a very expressive person so look at my face cause my visual cues might help you out (and I oop...)

-I'll listen to whatever style of argumentation you like and whatever makes you passionate as long as you got warrants.

-At the end of the debate, be sure to summarize why I should vote for you.


I love running the K and the moment I was able to get into critical literature in my debate career, I dived right in. That being said, two important conclusions: One, I understand the foundations of most literature bases so feel free to run them if that is the style of argumentation you prefer. Two, I have a larger threshold for the K because I expect you to explain the link story and the alternative with warrants so don't assume that just because I know the theory means you don't have to put in the work for the ballot. I would also warn against just running a K because you think I'm only a K debater. Again, DO YOU BOO! If your heart is in the K, go for it! If its not, don't force yourself.

I love performative links not personal attacks so if you are unsure what that line is, talk to your coaches or email me before you dive in. With performative links, just make sure to give a warranted analysis as to why I should vote on it and what the impact is.

K aff's:

I do prefer K aff's to be in the direction of the topic or make some attempt to include a discussion of the resolution, but if you are not, then at least give me a warranted explanation as to why you have chosen that route. For those that are in the topic of the resolution, have a clear impact and solvency story. Many times, debaters will get so caught up in the negative arguments that they lose sight of what is important...their aff! So make sure to keep a story line going throughout the entirety of the debate. I also think you need a clear reason why you are not topical if you get into fmwk debates in front of me.


It's a strategy that is read against K aff's, it's a strategy I have won against, a strategy I have lost to, a strategy I have voted on and against. My personal outlook - debate is a game but it has real impacts that can help or harm certain individuals. While it is a competitive strategy, I do not think it is an excuse to not engage the affirmative because most of the time, your lack of engagement is what the aff will use to link turn the performance of reading fmwk (hint hint to K debaters reading this). I like the impact of education a lot more the fairness because it has better spill over claims, but in any case, make sure you have a clear impact and story from your internal links and links. I find it most compelling when you prove in round abuse so be on the lookout and don't miss opportunities. I also don't think you need a role of the ballot because I think fmwk is a counter RoB, but you should probably indicate that. Don't be shifty with your interp, but I believe a capable 2N will be able to accurately counter the 2AC shift and reframe the debate through the same interp in the 1nc. Please have a TVA! No, it does not need to solve the entirety of the aff because that is neg ground, but it should be able to solve the main impacts they go for. Lastly, defend your model of debate and explain why it would be better for the debate community writ large. If you are only focusing on the one round, then explain why that is better.


I don't have a preference meaning I am open to all types of CPs. What I do ask is that you have a net benefit and explain how your CP solves the aff. It's also nice if your CP is competitive...


I'm down for some good old throw downs on the DA flow, but make sure you have a clear and warranted link story and awesome impact calc for ya girl.


I think theory is procedural just make sure you explain very clearly and slowly what the violation is and why that matters...if you are going to go for theory, I expect the 2n or 2a to spend a good amount of time on it which means not just 30 sec or 1 min.

Policy Affs vs K:

Engage the K! Too many times policy teams just write over the K with their fmwk thinking that is the only work they have to do but it's just like debating a DA or CP. Do the link work and the more specific answers you have to the alt, the better position you are in. Don't just say Perm DB or Perm aff then alt, but really explain what that means and looks like in the world of the aff. I think you do need fmwk to get to weigh your aff but that is all the fmwk will get you which means don't forget to extend your aff and the impact story. A really good way to engage the K is to prove how the plan not only outweighs but resolves the specific impacts.


I think cross-ex is a really good place to assert your arguments and point out key flaws in the other team's arguments. This means you should take advantage of the time to really prove to me why the entire speech they just gave don't matter. While I think cross-ex is binding, you still have to bring it into a speech to explain why that moment was so important and the impact of it.

Alex Wakefield Paradigm

6 rounds

I have extensive experience as a Public Forum debate competitor and judge, however my first LD round today will be my first LD round ever. I am okay with reasonable speed (but not spreading). I will do my best to judge the round fairly, however it will largely be based on the flow and impact weighing. Write my ballot for me, tell me throughout the round why your team has won and your arguments are better. If you don't do that, I will have to make the analysis for you.

Jerry Wang Paradigm

3 rounds

Peninsula 17

USC 21

No, you don't have to have a plan.

Yes, kritiks are fine. But you better be able to explain your theory (especially high theory) well and do specific link work.


Scott Wheeler Paradigm

2 rounds

1. Offense-defense, but can be persuaded by reasonability in theory debates. I don't believe in "zero risk" or "terminal defense" and don't vote on presumption (though technically i guess I do in debates where the aff goes for "perm do the CP" and wins that it isn't severance, but not in any other instance). 

2. I'll submit the ballot that is most persuasive to me, and will try to think through the story of each ballot before choosing (of course, in good debates, that's what the final rebuttals do). I won't simply point to an argument on my flow and say "I voted on this," nor will my RFD lead with technical advice in lieu of an actual decision. Substantive questions are resolved probabilistically--only theoretical questions (e.g. is the perm severance, does the aff meet the interp) are resolved "yes/no," and will be done so with some unease, forced upon me by the logic of debate. 

3. Dropped arguments are "true," but this just means the warrants for them are true. Their implication can still be contested. The exception to this is when an argument and its implication are explicitly conceded by the other team for strategic reasons (like when kicking out of a disad). Then both are "true."

1. Conditionality bad is an uphill battle. I think it's good, and will be more convinced by the negative's arguments. I also don't think the number of advocacies really matters. Unless it was completely dropped, the winning 2AR on condo in front of me is one that explains why the way the negative's arguments were run together limited the ability of the aff to have offense on any sheet of paper.

2. I think of myself as aff-leaning in a lot of counterplan theory debates, but usually find myself giving the neg the counterplan anyway, generally because the aff fails to make the true arguments of why it was bad.

1. I don't think I evaluate these differently than anyone else, really. Perhaps the one exception is that I don't believe that the affirmative needs to win uniqueness for a link turn to be offense. If uniqueness really shielded a link turn that much, it would also overwhelm the link. In general, I probably give more weight to the link and less weight to uniqueness.

2. On politics, I will probably ignore "intrinsicness" or "fiat solves the link" arguments, unless badly mishandled (like dropped through two speeches).


1. I like kritiks, provided two things are true: 1--there is a link. 2--the thesis of the K indicts the truth of the aff. If the K relies on framework to make the aff irrelevant, I start to like it a lot less (role of the ballot = roll of the eyes). I'm similarly annoyed by aff framework arguments against the K. The K itself answers any argument for why policymaking is all that matters (provided there's a link). I feel negative teams should explain why the affirmative advantages rest upon the assumptions they critique, and that the aff should defend those assumptions.

2. I think I'm less techincal than some judges in evaluating K debates. Something another judge might care about, like dropping "fiat is illusory," probably matters less to me (fiat is illusory specifically matters 0%). I also won't be as technical in evaluating theory on the perm as I would be in a counterplan debate (e.g. perm do both isn't severance just because the alt said "rejection" somewhere--the perm still includes the aff). The perm debate for me is really just the link turn debate. Generally, unless the aff impact turns the K, the link debate is everything.

3. Many of these debates seem to involve one team discussing a nuanced critique and the other side arguing "state bad" or "state good." Not surprisingly, I'm generally going to side with the team doing the former. 

Nontraditional affirmatives:

Versus T:
1. I usually vote neg in these debates, because the aff never has a defensible interp (to be honest, I think the current model might be what they want--these affs require a boogeyman to rail against). Some people seem to view these debates as a plan/counterplan debate where the 1AC is weighed against the "topical version of the aff." I don't subscribe to that view. The affirmative has to defend an interp. If I do vote aff, one of two things has happened. Most often, the aff successfully impact-turned the impacts the negative went for. The other time I vote aff is when the neg doesn't have an external impact--their offense is simply "we're the better version of the discussion you want to have." In those debates, "TVA doesn't solve" does become offense against their interp.

2. I've noticed that some judges tend to dismiss T impacts that I take seriously. I've seen this with not just fairness, which I think is the truest T impact, but others run less often (like "moral hazzard") that were in the 2NR and then not in the RFD at all. I think a lot of things can be impacts to T, so aff teams might want to spend more time on them. 

3. To be honest, I enjoy judging K affs with plans, and wish teams ran them more. With judges voting on nonsense like PIC out of fiat and Schlag, I can see why teams don't. And of course you also still have to answer politics/util and regular T (which you might not be used to debating), but I think those are pretty doable and you'd be in better shape in front of me if you are a team that is at all flexible.

Versus the K:
1. Affs are in much better shape here because, for me, it's not up for debate whether planless affs get to perm. They do. I have yet to hear a convincing argument as to why there is such a thing as a "methods debate" for which theories of debate competition no longer apply. If the negative has a better methodology or starting point, I will vote aff, provided the aff methodology or starting point is good. I wouldn't vote for a counterplan that solves warming better than the aff without a link to a disad, and I don't believe competition theory goes out the window because it's a performance aff. If the aff doesn't get a perm, there's no reason the neg would have to have a link.


Topicality versus plan affs:
1. I used to enjoy these debates. It seems like I'm voting on T less often than I used to, but I also feel like I'm seeing T debated well less often. I enjoy it when the 2NC takes T and it's well-developed and it feels like a solid option out of the block. What I enjoy less is when it isn't but the 2NR goes for it as a hail mary and the whole debate occurs in the last two speeches.

2. Teams overestimate the importance of "reasonability." Winning reasonability shifts the burden to the negative--it doesn't mean that any risk of defense on means the T sheet of paper is thrown away. It generally only changes who wins in a debate where the aff's counter-interp solves for most of the neg offense but doesn't have good offense against the neg's interp.

LD section:
1. I've been judging LD less, but I still have LD students, so my familarity with the topic will be greater than what is reflected in my judging history.

2. Everything in the policy section applies. This includes the part about substantive arguments being resolved probablistically, my dislike of relying on framework to preclude arguments, and not voting on defense or presumption. If this radically affects your ability to read the arguments you like to read, you know what to do.  

3. If I haven't judged you or your debaters in a while, I think I vote on theory less often than I did say three years ago (and I might have already been on that side of the spectrum by LD standards, but I'm not sure). I've still never voted on an RVI so that hasn't changed.

4. The 1AR can skip the part of the speech where they "extend offense" and just start with the actual 1AR.

Lawrence Zhou Paradigm

6 rounds

Last updated for Oklahoma Regionals

Email for the chain: lwzhou10 at gmail.com (Yes, I want to be on the chain, if you don't put me on the chain, I just assume you haven't read the paradigm)

I am the Director of Publishing and Lincoln-Douglas Debate at the Victory Briefs Institute and Debate League Director of the National High School Debate League of China. I have been involved with debate since 2010, having won NSDA Nationals in LD in 2014 and clearing at CEDA in 2016 and 2018. I coach The Harker School in LD and ideologically align with the vast majority of their preferences.

If it is right before the round, just look at the "Answers to Common Questions" section. If you are doing prefs before the tournament or have more time before the round, you should begin at the "Prefs Overview" section in my paradigm in full paradigm linked below.

Regionals: LD

I prefer to judge smart stock arguments and debates that show a command of philosophical argumentation. I don't want fast debate. Offense wins rounds. I don't care too much about form, just about smart content. If you say that the framework or value criterion is a voting issue, I make sad faces. Great debaters demonstrate topic knowledge, strategic thought, and the ability to synthesize the round down to a coherent ballot story. I'll orally disclose decisions.

Regionals: PF

Read the full PF paradigm -- all comments there apply.

Regionals: Policy

Most of my experience is in LD but I've done college policy. I prefer plan/DA/CP debates. Read the LD paradigm to get a better sense of my thoughts or ask before the round. Yes speed, yes impact calc, yes extinction outweighs, yes plan, yes condo. No cheating.

Full Paradigm here.

Answers to Common Questions

Q: Should I shake your hand?
A: NO (esp. nowadays...)

Q: What's your paradigm?
A: ... the way I evaluate rounds? More specifically?

Q: Are you okay with speed?
A: If I wasn't, do you think anyone would hire me?

Q: What experience do you have as a judge?
A: Too much.

Q: Do you care if we stand/sit?
A: Nope, but it's better for you if you can stand.

Q: Preference of seating?
A: Nope.

Q: Will you yell clear/speed?
A: Yes, 2 times.

Q: Are you okay with theory?
A: I suppose.

Q: What do you default on theory?
A: Competing interps, drop the arg, RVIs fine, but need to be justified.

Q: How about policy arguments?
A: I suppose.

Q: What about kritiks?
A: I suppose.

Q: What about performance?
A: I suppose (see below)

Q: What if I read a blatantly non-topical aff?
A: Meh (see below)

Q: Are there any arguments you don't want me to make?
A: Yes, bad arguments. Again, I'll vote on them, but I'd rather not.

Q: Do you disclose speaks?
A: Not anymore.

Q: What does it take to get the 30?
A: You probably won't get one, but knock my socks off and you'll get close.

Q: Should I pref this guy?
A: Good question.