Arizona State HDSHC Invitational

2018 — Tempe, AZ/US

Hannah Aiken Paradigm

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Vibha Argawal Paradigm

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Abby Atonal Rodriguez Paradigm

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Paxton Attridge Paradigm

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Katie Austin Paradigm

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Shreya Bhattacharyya Paradigm

I'm a sophomore at Northwestern University and I competed for four years at Dougherty Valley High School in California. My main events were Congress and Original Advocacy, but I have some experience in World Schools Debate and PF. I prefer traditional styled debates at an average speed. The debate should involve polished presentation skills, a lot of clash with the other team, and an emphasis on evidence. I value a good balance between presentation and content, so make sure you prove your ability to manage both those aspects of a debate in the round. Also, be respectful to your opponents and your partner!

Rachel Billings Paradigm

I was a debater in high school, and I have loved debating ever since I started in the 9th grade. As I judge I am looking for the convincing evidence and confidence.  As long as your evidence is convincing, and you are confident about your case, you will get my vote.

Bryce Brothers Paradigm

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Robin Brown Paradigm

Judging Experience: 10 Years
High school coach, 10 years
High school policy debate, 4 years.

Overview: in general, I prefer traditional value debate in LD. My judging will emphasize how well you explain your value, how well you weigh your value against your opponent’s, how well you link your arguments to your value, etc.
I like to hear voters. You need to signpost and extend your arguments; if I don’t know where you are on the flow, it’s as if you aren’t making the argument.
I am not likely to pick you up if you don’t spend any time on impact analysis.
I would much prefer three solid cards with excellent analysis to thirty cards without any analysis. Be a debater, not a competitive librarian.

Plans: I will accept cases which offer some kind of loose plan, so long as that plan clearly and fully relates to the resolution. I see LD as being different from Policy—I don't think very narrow and specific plans are effective in LD. If you are using a plan to show that there is a smart way to do whatever your side is, great. If you are using a super narrow and specific plan to show that you could come up with something squirrely (and potentially abusive), that’s not ok. With that in mind, it's debaters' responsibility to point out that their opponent is running squirrely/abusive plan.

Kritiks: I'll accept them.

Values/ Criteria: I strongly prefer a framework that allows me to clearly pick one position over another. If your value is “morality," make sure you can give me a good sense of what is more moral and what is less. You should have cards in your framework.

Speed: The extent to which you use speed should not interfere with your ability to communicate intelligibly. If you want me to put your arguments/cards on the flow, slow down. You’ll know you’re speaking too fast if I stop flowing.

Cross-ex: Questions/Etiquette: If your opponent is abusing your cross-ex by taking too long to answer a question, you may politely interrupt; I will not consider you rude for the interruption. However, not every question has a yes or no answer, and your opponent is perfectly within their rights to say they need to give an explanation. The person answering the questions may only respond with questions for clarification (“Are you asking about my 1st or 2nd contention?” for example) and may not respond with substantive questions.

Blatantly offensive arguments: I will drop debaters for arguing (within either frameworks or contentions) that something we all agree is horrible is actually a good thing (e.g. slavery, rape, etc.).

Mary Chao Paradigm

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Allison Chen Paradigm

I did PF in high school (though my main event was Interp) and have judged PF at various tournaments. I'm currently a sophomore at Yale, prospectively majoring in Global Affairs/Econ.

Keeping this paradigm simple and concise:

-Spreading is fine (I did it a lot as well--and I can keep up when I judge)

-Weighing is absolutely crucial in final focus--don't make me do the work for you!


There you go! Simple and concise! Have fun!

Yunuen Cho Paradigm

Debate Paradigm: I call it the "Two Trains Passing in the Night" dilemma if both competitors/teams are not responding to each others arguments.

I hold more weight to responses than to evidence thrown into the debate. Evidence should be weighed if asked by the topic, if not, use that evidence to respond to the other arguments: your best bet. Shows a clean debate. I do not flow cross, I weigh whatever you tell me to in the speeches.

Speech Paradigm: Clarity! Be excited, you chose to roll with this piece. Show it off!

Kateri Christian Paradigm

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Spencer Coben Paradigm

i don't want to shake your hand.

it's flu szn baby

Megan Codling Paradigm

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Timothy J Cornwell Paradigm

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Becky Cryder Paradigm

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Nicole Dalton Paradigm

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Janniqua Dawkins Paradigm


Competed and speaking and interpretation events for 7 years. Judged PF and LD since 2014.


I believe that arguments should be able to be understood by judges of all levels of experience. Although I typically flow rounds, my vote almost always goes to the team that walks me through the round with them, highlighting dropped points, and clearly stating why I should vote for them.

Peter De Marneffe Paradigm

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Jake Dean Paradigm

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Matt Dietz Paradigm

I’m a former national qualifer in speaking events. Looking forward to some great speeches. Have fun!

John Doller Paradigm

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Nicole Dominiak Paradigm

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Ginger Ehrke Paradigm

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Leanne Emas Paradigm

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Katie Fauria Paradigm

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Brandon Ferderer Paradigm

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Judy Fong Paradigm

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Wayne Frank Paradigm

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Lacey Fron Paradigm

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LJ Gomez Paradigm

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Chris Greenleaf Paradigm

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Erin Guiney Paradigm

I have experience competing, judging, and coaching both Congressional Debate and Public Forum Debate and have judged a handful of Novice LD rounds.

For Congress:

60% presentation, 40% content. There MUST be refutation in every speech after the authorship. If you speak twice on the same bill I will drop you. If you refer to male competitors as 'representative' and female competitors as 'Ms.' I will drop you. Please give me impacts.

For PF:

I'm not going to time you. I'm not going to flow CX. You will not be able to speak faster than I will be able to flow. I need impacts, please, and clear taglines. It is not my job to weigh the round for you, so you need to be doing impact calculus and giving me key voters all the way through. If you are rude in CX I will give you low speaks and I will want to drop you. Also I do not care who the authors of your cards are so if you refer to cards by the author only I am not going to know what you are talking about.

For NLD:

I'm new to this, so please speak clearly, give me impacts, and use your value and criterion throughout the round. I won't flow CX and I won't be able to keep up if you go full spread on me. Weigh impacts and condense the debate for me more and more every speech so it is clear what the main issues are.

Tracy Hancey Paradigm

LD - I am a traditional judge, I do not favor progressive LD. I look for clash and a good morality debate. I also favor good communication. If I can't understand you, I can't flow.

PF - I am a traditional judge, do not favor progressive PF. See above.

Aubree Hansen Paradigm

I am a former Lincoln Douglas debater and current assistant coach of La Cueva High School in Albuquerque, NM. My last competitive experience was at the 2008 National Tournament in LD. LD is my absolute favorite style of debate and where I feel most at home, but I frequently find myself judging policy rounds. I've judged policy at both the 2017 and 2018 national tournaments and lots of local and regional Arizona and New Mexico tournaments.

I believe that debate is meant to be a persuasive activity, and I lean toward preferring a slower style. I will not understand much if you spread. I am pretty traditionalist and value/criteria are really important to how I weigh a round. I am not entirely fluent in policy style argumentation or lingo and I expect logic and reasoning in your case. I will count flashing against your prep time and I'm not a fan of things like flex prep, taking over your partner's CX answers, etc.

If I'm judging you in a Public Forum round, know that I am even more traditionalist in PF than the other two debates. I love PF for what it is and what it was meant to be. Don't use Policy lingo or spreading.

I never tolerate rude, sexist, or racist behavior in a round and speaker points will reflect that if I see it. Be eloquent and persuasive. I need to see clash in the debate. Please clearly signpost for me and sum it all up for me with clear voting issues in your final speech.

Claire Hansen Paradigm

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Alexander Haw Paradigm

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Xavier Henes Paradigm


I flow everything that I hear and am able to understand excluding cross, so speed is not a problem to the extent that you annunciate and are clear, but if you get garbled and i can't understand you it will not end up on the flow.


Did PF in HS but have been judging both consistently for the 4 years. I'm always down for some progressive debate but be very explicit if your running progressive vs traditional b every explicit on why your theory outweighs or like keeps them in some ethical violation because I see no problem in voting for that, however, always try and run some solvency with it to prove that like you break out of the same problem. Other than that, I'm down for anything really.

In regards to speed, I'm fine with it, however, slow down on taglines, authors, contention titles and any analysis that you deem important for the round. If you become extremely unclear I will say clear. In weighing the round I think framework is very important to the round, and I want to ensure that you as a debater understand and actually link into it. If you don't you will get dropped so ensure that you have a clear reason and tell me why you link into your theory, and if you perm their's or any of their contention tell me why, don't just say it fits in my framework unless it's blatantly obvious. It is therefore it is imperative that you understand I ALWAYS weigh framework/Roll of Ballot is the first to be evaluated.

I'm down for anything really run whatever you feel comfortable with, but ensure that you actually understand. I try to be as tab as possible, so I'll vote for something if you give me enough legitimate backing for the argumentation. The Major Key to picking up my ballot is spending the last 30ish seconds of your last speech to breaking down and giving me voters. ALSO NEVER EVER FORGET EXTENSIONS, I WILL NOT EXTEND FOR YOU, IF YOU DROP IT, IT IS DROPPED.


Rebuttal: I don't like lazy debate its bad, that being said you have to give me a reason why I should accept your contention over theirs not just because the tags are different. In your rebuttal if you don't give me a reason to value your information/data whatever it may be I have no reason to.

Summaries: I need argument selection. Otherwise, the entire flow falls apart and I will be sad. Tell me why y'all are winning the arguments you choose and why they are important. If an argument was extended in neither summary, it isn't evaluated at the end of the round. Kicking out of arguments in the summary is strategic and I'll be very happy if you do it well.

Final Foci: My decision is based on the final focus, but the final focus must only include arguments extended through summary. Extending offense last mentioned in the rebuttal will make me sad and I won't evaluate them. Weighing your voters / strat is *hella* important. If you don't weigh in the final focus, you forfeit your right to complain if you lose (although you should never complain about your losses).


Extensions: Extending through ink does nothing for me. Answer the responses, otherwise, it's like you never made the extension in the first place.

Evidence: I genuinely believe that the fabrication of evidence is what ruins debate as an academic activity. I will call for evidence after the round has ended only when there's a significant dispute throughout the round or when I'm asked explicitly in a speech to do so. If there is legitimate abuse of evidence, you're getting dropped with probably 0 speaks. Don't make me do this.

Speaker Points

- I don't mind giving a low-point win.

- Speaker Points will be based upon these things:

Clarity, Confidence, Content

Alexandrea Holley Paradigm

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Ian Hopkins Paradigm

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Kun Hu Paradigm

I am a parent of an LD debater. This is my third year judging LD debate. I judged varsity LD on several invitational tournaments and NCFL/NSDA nationals.

If you're a progressive LD debate, I will be better for me if you can run you case in traditional LD way.

I consider myself a tabula rasa judge, and will vote on anything if given a proper rationale and justification. However, please do not make sexist, racist, or ablest arguments I will drop you.

I take judging seriously and most time showing a poker face so don’t try to get feedback from me during the round. You can expect that I will have a solid understanding of the subject(s) being debated.

What I won't have is a pre-determined way of thinking based on my individual beliefs on any topic.


Speed: It is ok to go faster than normal, but please no spreading. If you aren't clear, then I can't understand your arguments. And if I can't understand your arguments, I can't vote for you. Vary speed, tone, volume, or something else to differentiate between tags and cards. Emphasize transitions, present important analysis, signposts, etc.

Plans: I am ok with plans, just have solvency.

Counterplans: I am ok with counterplans, but please don't run abusive counterplans, I won't vote on them. Pics are okay, but not word pics.

Kritiks: I will not vote off a Kritik.

Philosophy: I like value/value criterion debates.

Theory: No theory.

Topicality: Only argue about topicality if your opponent is being blatantly non-topical.

Decorum: Please be polite and respectful towards your opponent. Do not be overly aggressive.

Benjamin Hughes Paradigm

My Experience/Background

In college, I took semesters of parliamentary debate. Today, I'm a coach at the middle school level (modified parliamentary and public forum) with 15 years of coaching experience. I'm also the founder of OC Debate League in California - affiliated with the MSPDP (if you're familiar).


In my opinion, the Pro (Affirmative) has the burden to prove the resolution. I try to be a blank slate as much as possible, so I don't know anything until you tell me. I ask that you point out any misinformation from your opponent. Overall, I base victory on the number and weight of arguments, and for me, contentions/arguments should carry through from start to finish.

Speaker Scores

Students will earn speaker points based up their argumentation, refutation, organization and presentation.

I'd recommend using good speaking skills (eye contact, pausing, vocal inflection) and compete sentences and avoiding debate-specific jargon. Please no spreading!

Victoria Huynh Paradigm

In case anyone is curious, I have had minimal experience in HI, Duo, Oratory, and Prose and had my main event as Expository Speaking.

If I can't understand you, then I can't give a proper evaluation. Therefore, speak in a loud and clear manner. If possible, unless I am the only one in the room, maintain eye contact with other individuals other than myself. Since I will be making general notes (i.e. topic, movements, volume, inflection in tone, etc), I can assure you that I will not be making eye contact for the entirety--or even majority--of the round.

Other than that, be sure to shake off any nerves you have and have fun with your performance! I can't invest myself in watching you if you don't first convince me to do so. :)

Patrick Johnson Paradigm

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Sheridan Johnson Paradigm

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Sharayah Johnson Paradigm

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Nancy Karcher Paradigm

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Gia Karpouzis Paradigm

PF & Parli coach for Nueva

- Use your agency to make this safe space and non-hostile to all debaters & judges

- non-interventionist until the point where something aggressively problematic is said (read: problematic: articulating sexist, racist, ableist, classist, queerphobic, anything that is oppressive or entrenches/legitimates structural violence in-round)

- tech over truth

- please time yourselves and your opponent: I don't like numbers and I certainly don't like keeping track of them when y'all use them for prep, if you ask me how much time you have left I most probably won't know

- if you finish your speech and have extra time at the end, please do not take that time to "go over my own case again" - I recommend weighing if you want to finish your speech time, or alternatively, just end your speech early


- I guess I expect debaters to ask POI's, but I won't punish you for not asking them in your speaker scores

- I give speaker scores based on function, not form (I don't care how fluid you are, I care what it is that you're saying). I think speakers are arbitrary and probably problematic. Tell me to give everyone a 30 and assuming tab allows, I'll do it. That being said, I will never factor in appearance into your speaker points or the ballot. I’m not in the business of policing what debaters wear.

- I do my best to protect the flow, but articulate points of order anyway

- recently I've heard rounds that include two minutes of an "overview/framework" explaining why tech debate/using "technical terms" in debate is bad - I find this irritating, so it would probably be in your best interest to not run that, although it's not an automatic loss for you, it simply irks me

- feel free to ask questions within "protected time" - it's the debater's prerogative whether or not they accept the POI, but I don't mind debaters asking and answering questions within

- I like uniqueness, I like link chains, I like impact scenarios! These things make for substantive, educational debates!


- I don't call for cards unless you tell me to; telling me "the ev is sketchy" or "i encourage you to call for the card" isn't telling me to call for the card. tell me "call for the card" - picking and choosing cards based on what I believe is credible or not is sus and seems interventionist

- I don't flow cross fire but it works well to serve how much you know the topic. regardless, if you want anything from crossfire on my flow, reference it in-speech.

- I give speaker scores based on function, not form (I don't care how fluid you are, I care what it is that you're saying). I think speaker points are arbitrary and probably problematic. Tell me to give everyone a 30 and assuming tab allows, I'll do it. That being said, I will never factor in appearance into your speaker points or the ballot. I’m not in the business of policing what debaters wear.

- if you want me to evaluate anything in your final focus make sure it's also in your summary, save for of course frontlines by second-speaking teams - continuity is key

- in terms of rebuttal I guess I expect the second speaking team to frontline, but of course this is your debate round and I'm not in charge of any decisions you make

- hello greetings defense is sticky

- please please please please please WEIGH: tell me why the args you win actually matter in terms of scope, prob, mag, strength of link, clarity of impact, yadda yadda

Other than that please ask me questions as you will, I should vote off of whatever you tell me to vote off of given I understand it. If I don't understand it, I'll probably unknowingly furrow my eyebrows as I'm flowing. Blippy extensions may not be enough for me - at the end of the day if you win the round because of x, explain x consistently and cleanly so there's not a chance for me to miss it.

email me at with any questions or comments or if you feel otherwise uncomfortable asking in person

Kaitlyn Kelley Paradigm

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Nick Klemp Paradigm

Public Forum


Coached PF and LD for the past 5 years at Phoenix Country Day School in Arizona where I also teach economics. PF and LD competitor in 2003. I have judged Public Forum and LD at all levels over the past 15 years.


I do believe that Public Forum should be accessible to all levels of judge experience, and I am less inclined to see arguments that serve to exclude the general public amicably. That being said, I hate intervening in rounds, so it is your opponents' job to explain why those arguments do not meet the spirit of public forum, are antithetical to the educational purpose of the event, and/or create levels of abuse that tip the balance towards one side or the other.

General Philosophy:

Tabula Rasa - I'll only intervene if something egregious or offensive occurs that an educator needs to step in and correct. Otherwise, I'll vote on the arguments in the round and weigh the impacts through the frameworks that are presented. If there are competing frameworks in the round, show me why you win through both of them.

Kristine Knutson Paradigm

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Whitney Kubal Paradigm

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Shaul Leket-Mor Paradigm

I am open for any type of story or message that you want to tell. Judging will be based on how well you show that message. Just make sure that you are careful with matters concerning sexual assault, self-harm, or any other possible sensitive topics. Not to say that you can't have those topics be addressed, but make sure that they are talked about tastefully.

Alec Lenamond Paradigm

My name is Alec Lenamond. I am a 5th year Applied Mathematics major at the University of California, San Diego. I graduated from Citrus Valley High School in 2014 and have years of experience in Lincoln Douglas Debate, both on a local and national level.

tl;dr: (1) Speed okay (provided inclusion in an email chain), (2) advise against Theory and K's, (3) default probability over magnitude, and (4) pls debate the topic instead of just reading weak link chains.

Speed: I'll start by saying I have not judged much over the last few years so don't complain if I miss important information if you are spreading. I'm not opposed to speed, but I think there can still be great substantive debate at a normal conversational pace. If you do wish to spread, I would appreciate being included in an email chain or have the case(s) flashed to me.

Paradigm: I always evaluate framework first, but you need not win the framework debate to get my ballot. I resolve framework and then see which contentions/arguments win under that framework, so it is entirely possible to win under your opponent’s standard. In most cases, losing the framework debate will likely put you at somewhat of a disadvantage on the ballot, but I think there's great strategic potential in dropping framework to go all in on contentions (especially if you're negating).

As far as voting issues are concerned, winning the framework debate is not a voting issue. It is absolutely necessary to address framework in the last speech, but only as a means to tell me how to evaluate your voting issues. In other words, do not expect my ballot just because you won the framework debate.

Preferences: I generally prefer consequentialism because substantial arguments are quantifiable, making it easier to compare and debate the impact of the resolution. I am not opposed to means-based frameworks, but I feel they substantially limit the scope of the debate and, more often than not, confuse the shit out of me because debaters can't properly articulate what it means.

Absent any discussion on probability vs magnitude, I will default to the most probable impact. However, I highly encourage debaters to engage in a probability vs magnitude debate if relevant to the debate.

As a side note, I was never well-trained in Theory, Topicality, or RVIs so I will never make a decision on that. Still call out abuse if it's apparent but don't use theory as a strategy to win the debate.

Though I have some experience with K debates, I would rather debaters avoid this strategy as a whole and actually debate the substance of the resolution. If you run a K, please do not spread since I am not well-versed in literature. I also have a high threshold for voting for the K. Be extremely articulate when it comes to (1) the link to the AC, (2) the impact from voting for the AC, and (3) why the K comes before the standard offered by the AC. Most times, when I vote against a K it's because (3) is unclear or underdeveloped.

Prep Time: I generally prefer to give both debaters as much time as necessary to prepare for speeches, so long as both debaters have an equal claim to preparation. If taking an extra minute of prep results in a better quality debate, by all means take your time. However, I will not allow you to utilize unused prep time as additional speaking time. Flex prep is okay.

Evidence: I reserve the right to call for evidence after the round. I will only call for evidence if (a) it is significant in decision-making for the round or (b) if there is a dispute over what the evidence says. I will not call for evidence if I believe it to be falsified or misrepresentative of the author’s true intentions, as that is the debaters’ jobs to identify in the debate.

Feel free to ask any questions you may have on any other issue before/after the debate!

Tracy Leve Paradigm

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Dale Levinsky Paradigm

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Jake Long Paradigm

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Jacque Lyman Paradigm

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Frankie Marchi Paradigm

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Shannon Maze Paradigm

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Kate McGarey-Vasey Paradigm

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Daniel Mena Paradigm

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Kara Menning Paradigm

6 rounds

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Pricilla Merritt Paradigm

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Anne Meyers Paradigm

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Yesmeen Mikhail Paradigm

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Anupam Misra Paradigm

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Greg Morton Paradigm

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Maria Mucino Paradigm

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Justin Myman Paradigm

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Tracie Nall Paradigm

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Valerie Navarete Paradigm

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Lars Niemi Paradigm

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Jens Niemi Paradigm

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Jeffrey Niemiec Paradigm

Former college policy debater and speech competitor. Been coaching speech and debate for the last 12 years.

A fan of clean, structured, easy to follow debates. I'm big on pre-speech road maps and internal signposting. Staying on track and explaining to me where you're going indicates to me that you are in control of the round and your performance within it. Debates that get muddled aren't fun for anyone, so keep it clear where you are cross applying and clashing.

I won't time anything in round. Keep tabs on each other.

I do prefer you extend thru summary if you have time so I know what you're going for.

Definitions only help us stay on the same page so when they are helpful, they are appreciated. Totally down with an overview.

Also fine with jargon. Competed in policy so speed shouldn't be an issue. I prefer it to be a little slower as this is PF, but if I can't understand you it's almost certainly an issue with articulation, not speed.

Impact weighing should be a primary part of your final focus. If I don't know what you impact out to then what are we even doing here and why does it matter? I do my best to leave my biases at the door, but that also means I will not intervene for you. Don't sprinkle a trail of bread crumbs and lead me down a path without actually ending up somewhere. Don't imply impacts or warrants, state them directly. You shouldn't make me work to follow you, it should be easy.

Speaker points for me are a function of your ability to logically break down and explain your points in a clear and concise manner. In my opinion it's not about how pretty you speak, that's what IE's are for (a stumble here or there means nothing to me in debate). Be clear, articulate, logical, and explain where you are going and you'll get high speaks from me. Be warned though: in 12 years of judging debate I have given out less than 10 perfect 30's. To me, 30 means perfection, as in you could not have done anything better whatsoever.

Framework is cool with me. Makes it easier to weigh the round.

Truth over tech.

Any other questions feel free to ask me before the round starts.

Tracey O'Rourke Paradigm

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Susan Ontiveros Paradigm

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Julie Orme Paradigm

I’m a new judge for PF so don’t speak too fast.

Be clean on your flow

Don’t interupt each other during cross X. Ask a question and listen for an answer and vice versa.

Jody Orme Paradigm

I am a very traditional judge who prefers good analysis and traditional case structure. I am ok with progressive ideas if they are well explained. Moderate speed is ok

Paradigm: This isn’t my first rodeo! Although I may not be a professional debater, I stay informed of today’s political issues. I’m most interested in how the status quo is affected by these issues. I appreciate a debater who can present both facts and real world applications. I also appreciate when two debaters can refute each other and there is some good clash! It also doesn’t hurt when you treat this as an actual congressional debate (mini congressmen and women).

Julie Parkinson Paradigm

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Jennifer Partridge Paradigm

I have been judging speech events since September of 2017. I have judged almost every event, and am fairly familiar with the rules.

I would like the name of your piece beforehand, especially for impromptu and extemp. Note, this does not mean the prompt, but the actual name you give your speech. Puns are preferred, though not necessary (if you want to lose). If you are doing oratory, be sure that your piece does not contain too many quotes. I count every single word that comes out of your mouth, and I will know if you go over the 10% maximum. If you are doing interp, I hope that you have the source material with you, as this is a requirement according to the NSDA rules. I like to read along in order to ensure adherence to the source material. This goes double for duo. In informative, you will be marked down for every fact or statistic you say that I already know: you can't call it informative if you're not teaching me new things. Additionally, bonus points will be awarded if you use a chair as a "visual aid" because standing is difficult with the amount of sleep deprivation you undoubtedly have. In all events that I judge, an extra speaker point is awarded if someone shouts, "World star!" after a joke that I find funny, both to the shouter and the joke teller. Rapping automatically ensures 50 speaks, unless your flow is whack, dawg. That is not dank nor is it on fleek.

Speech is supposed to be a fun event. Make me laugh or make me feel something emotionally. Hopefully you can tell that I have a sense of humor. It goes without saying that the middle paragraph should be completely disregarded. Paradigms are mostly a debate thing, but high school students do tend to be paranoid. Anyway, that's my 20 cents. If you didn't understand that pun, you lose ten speaker points. I can always tell based on the look in your eyes ;)

P.S. It has come to my attention after I submitted this that I will be judging debate as well. Bring your own coins. I am broke. I expect that you will all be timing yourselves, though I do keep time as well (even if it is by counting out loud the entire time in the event that my phone dies). I pay attention to crossfire. My son has informed me that I do not flow formally, though I do take extensive notes of the arguments made throughout the round when I'm not doodling. I am aware that final focus is only permitted to extend things that were stated in summary. I'm not familiar with kritiques or theory shells, but go ahead and try them, especially if they mention Kanye West. I am more lay than tech, but less lay than most. If you find an excuse to engage in a rap battle to determine the victor of the round, you are not the first one I've seen (I wasn't the judge for that round, but I have heard the GLORIOUS stories). This remains to be my 20 cents, and even though debate is often less humorous, I expect the same understanding of my puns.

Jillian Plewe Paradigm

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Benjamin Pope Paradigm

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Laurelann Porter Paradigm

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Anna Potrafke Paradigm

I am a lay judge and I prefer a slower pace. If I cannot follow your argument, I cannot judge it.

Shelby Reid Paradigm

Lay judge.

Parent 4th year involvement.

Have fun, flow like water.

You are all amazing:)

Tyler Rife Paradigm

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James Ritchey Paradigm

This is my fourth year as a lay judge. Above all, I appreciate civility. Respect your opponents and maintain a positive attitude. I don't mind a little aggression, but if you start to get snarky or roll eyes, I will start deducting speaker points. I'm not a fan of spreading or spewing. I will flow as best as I can, but if I can't follow, don't expect to win. Please keep your case appropriate for today's practical application. Clash well, speak clearly and persuasively, and have fun and you should do well.

Jaela Robinson Paradigm

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Hunter Rogers Paradigm


- 3 years of Collegiate Debate (IPDA)

- B.A. Speech Communications

- M.A. Higher Education Administration

-several years experience judging IPDA, Policy, LD, PF & IEs.


I have two main paradigms

1. Quality Over Quanity ( I can keep up with speed but i will weigh the quality and effectivness of contentions and clash over the shear amount of contentions a debater brings. So don't overthink it. Speed can prevent great debators from being effective communicators. 

2. Afirmative Burden (The AFF's job is to uphold the resolution and ultimately "convince" the judge of a position, all the NEG has to do is to sow doubt in the AFF's case and there are countless ways to do that. Because of this reality there exists a very real and statistically significant burden for the AFF side. To improve this imbalance I will generally allow the AFF the space to define the round and will adopt their Value/Criterion as long as it is a fair and reasonable approach that can provide clash for the Neg.


Myrna Rolfness Paradigm

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Amber Root Paradigm

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Justin Roth Paradigm

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Carter Santini Paradigm

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Scott Schuerman Paradigm

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Angela Shalizi Paradigm

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Roman Shemakov Paradigm

I did PF and LD for three years in high school. I'm fine with everything; ask for specifics in the round.

Kshitiz Singh Paradigm

Uh I did LD on-and-off for a few years while in high school; while definitely not my strong suit, I am still comfortable with most, if not all, progressive arguments.

I want clear extensions in the 1AR and 2NR and clear impact weighing in the 2AR and end of the 2NR- trust me, you don't want me doing the weighing for you because I guarantee it will not work out in your favor. Don't make me do work for you on the flow.

Warrants are key- I need to know the rationale behind your argument, and will not let you just hide behind the name of some godforsaken philosopher. If the argument isn't well-warranted and the opposing team mentions this, it's gonna get dropped.

I am not explicitly opposed to any arguments except theory; if you run theory that shell better be pristine and that violation better be extremely blatant. Chances are that if the theory gets touched on in any capacity in the 2NR (by whoever you're reading the theory against) I will probably not flow it through. Just don't do theory, please. 

Some general protocol:

Flex prep is cool with me

Don't be rude/racist/sexist/ableist in round

That's it- have fun! Seriously this activity is meant to be educational and enjoyable! If you have any specific question I'd be happy to answer them before we start in round.

Jennifer St. Clair Paradigm

Speech judging paradigm: be bold, original, and thought provoking. Cursing and singing are fine with me. Be respectful of other competitors while observing or having your team/family observe you.

Debate judging paradigm: I have the most experience with LD and competed in this event during my years in high school. I love and have judges all forms of debate, including Big Questions and World Schools. I value dignity, civility, and respect, in addition to being a flow judge. If you drop arguments or introduce new evidence in a round, I will notice and weigh that in my decision. I appreciate good, strong clash, as well as a clear understanding of one's case and evidence, so that debaters not only READ a card at me but can actually paraphrase it and link its impact. I DO pay attention during CX, and weigh the nature of questions and responses as a deciding factor in close rounds. Thank you for competing.

Natalie Steinbrink Paradigm

Hi all- my name is Natalie Steinbrink and I am an assistant coach at Phoenix Country Day School, where I've been since 2015. I graduated from Arizona State University in 2018 with a degree in English Literature. I am primarily a speech coach, but I do enjoy coaching and watching Congress when I can. Here is what's important to me in a Congressional Debate round:

-Clear argumentation. Don't make me work to understand your argument. Your structure, evidence, links, and impacts should be clear and easy to understand. I can appreciate a complex argument, but if I'm still wondering what your point was by the time we've moved on to the next speech, you haven't done the job.

-Be INVOLVED in the session. Be an active listener and don't get wrapped up in your own speeches (i.e. please don't practice your speech while others are talking). Ask good, varied questions. Be a congressperson who's going to foster good debate in the round (the most fun part of congress!).

-Give me some genuine emotion! This may be the speech coach in me jumping out, but the bills you're debating impact real people in the world, and you should treat them as such. How is anyone going to believe in your argument if you don't act like you believe in it yourself?

-Good delivery is a must. Try to get away from your legal pad as much as possible.

-Be respectful. If you're rude or aggressive to other debaters, you'll be dropped. Plain and simple.

I'm excited to listen to you all, and I hope you're excited as well!

Brandon Stewart Paradigm

Full disclosure - I am a coach. As this is first and foremost an educational activity, I have a few simple rules regarding conduct and content of the debate.

1) This is a debate, not a sound bite contest. Proper debate cannot exist without clash. If you bring up a point in C1 and it's never mentioned again, I'm dropping it from my decision. Obviously none of you thought it important enough to bring up again, so it must not be important enough for me to judge on.

2) Respect your opponent. Use your CX time wiseley to clarify the opponent's argument and find holes to exploit later in argumentation, or to perhaps plug up a hole you didn't realized you'd missed, not show off how much you can talk over the other person. And if you feel a need to resort to ad hominem attacks, you've lost me and we're done.

3) Deeply engage the topic, don't just recite a case. Yes, you absolutely must back up your claims with evidence, but don't make the sources do all the work. You've got to do your own analysis. Pro tip — creative arguments will get your judge's attention, since they've probably heard all the standard ones before. You're only going to make that happen if you take the time to really think hard about it on your own. And on a related note, I'd much rather see a few well-developed points with thoughtful analysis and solid foundational evidence than a "shotgun" approach where you throw out as many loosely-articulated arguments as possible and see what sticks.

4) I judge what happens in the debate. I will judge the outcome based on the merit of your arguments, regardless of how charismatically they were delivered. If both sides agree on a framework for deciding the winner, than that's what I'll vote on. If you don't agree on framework, then I'm left to determine my own, which will probably be based on what I judge to accomplish the Greater Good within the scope of the majority of the arguments. If aff defines a term or the motion in some way and neg doesn't contest it, than in the course of this debate that's what it means. If Neg runs a counter (non-negation) case or a counter-plan (assuming it's allowed), I'm going to judge it on balance with the aff case/plan, meaning I will decide which case better solves for all the harms. You should also know that while my ballot comments will probably bring in outside information, that information is intended to help you refine your arguments and did not influence my decision.

Deirdre Sullivan Paradigm

I coach Extemp and Advocacy at Bellarmine and also have experience with Policy and Congressional debate.

If I am your judge in an Interp round: I'm sorry. I don't know much about the events and honestly, much of the way I judge simply has to do with whether I am interested in the story you are telling. I am not good at evaluating blocking and so forth. It does seem to me that having multiple characters adds a degree of difficulty, so that tends to go a long way with me.

For INFO/Expos: I really want to LEARN something from your speech. You might have kind of a run-of-the-mill topic with lovely VA's and dynamic delivery, but if the content is pretty bland and I am not learning anything, then I will rank you low. I tend not to get too snowed by nice VA's. Some kids come from more money than others and if a student has a really original idea with strong research behind it, I don't want to penalize them for not having the money or access to a program that can help them get great VA's. I will say, though, that you really should not have a speech of nothing but content. That is HARD to sit through for 10 minutes. Aim to inject some humor or levity where you can.

When it comes to things like Oratory and Advocacy, I like to see RESEARCH and EVIDENCE. Your OO or OA should not be like a DI or HI. I am interested in your reasoning and analysis. Please don't try to cover for lack of empirics and analytical rigor by resorting to excessive pathos.

The event with which I have the most experience is Extemp. I love Extemp. However, I deplore the manner in which final rounds of Extemp at Nats have devolved into stand-up comedy routines. I find that more and more students say very little, they just say it in a very entertaining way. Extemp is an event where you should have an argument, you should have evidence, you should rely upon a range of sources. Students should have a sophisticated argument based upon multiple sources (1 per, no) that are accurately cited. Don't say that the Washington Post had an article on something. Tell me WHEN it had the article. In addition, I am quite pleased to see students stretch beyond standard sources like the NYT, WSJ, Economist, etc. When you show me that you are relying upon sources beyond those aggregated for you by Extemp Genie or Prepd or a similar service, I think that reflects well upon you. Bear in mind: the topics you are speaking about are by and large serious. So students who are smarmy and pleased with themselves and their puns really rub me the wrong way.

Fargo Tbakhi Paradigm

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Christian Torresluna Paradigm

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Michael Tristano Paradigm

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Benjamin Tully Paradigm

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Mathew Walker Paradigm

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Lizabeth Walsh Paradigm

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Melisa Wilson Paradigm

Hi – Cara Wilson of Westridge here writing her mom’s paradigm. She has been judging for 5 years now, and is a good note taker. That being said, she is by no means a flow judge but she will notice if you bring up new points in final or blatantly lie. She likes interactive frontlines, so not just extending your own point over and over again – don’t be two ships passing in the night. She likes it when you weigh impacts clearly. Please be nice to one another she hates aggression and debaters being disrespected. Please, please, please if you want any chance at picking up her ballot speak slowly. You can still do your fancy jargon – she knows that turn and nonunique means, but she just needs time to write it all down. I’m trying to teach her to flow y’all, don’t just assume she doesn’t know anything. In one sentence: be nice, be clear, be interactive/comparative, be persuasive, and be slow.

Have a good round y’all.

Jen Woodley Paradigm

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Scott Woods Paradigm

I am the Scott Woods who teaches and coaches at BASIS Scottsdale in Arizona. There are others. For instance, I am not the slam poet Scott Woods (although I enjoy his work), so if you try a slam poetry case because you think that your judge is a pretty famous slam poet, you will probably be disappointed by the ballot.

About me: I teach middle school English and high school speech and debate. I competed in interp and platform events in college. I'm a Scoutmaster, a Republican, and I go to church regularly. Many people who know me don't believe that I am as conservative as I think I am.

I want the debate round to be for the benefit of the debaters. I have been coaching and judging debate for several years, mostly in PF, but some LD. I also judge policy rounds occasionally. I've judged at the TOC twice and at NSDA Nationals twice. When I judge on a panel, my decision is often different from the majority, possibly because my judging skills are so refined and subtle, or maybe for other reasons that escape me.

I think of debate as an educational game that should be fun, challenging, and life changing for the good. I don't like sneaky approaches to debate, tricks, or unsportsmanlike behavior. I especially don't like anything that attempts to achieve an unfair advantage over an opponent. Among the behaviors I don't like to see are spreading, because it seeks to gain a time advantage by squeezing more content in the given time, forcing one's opponent either to spread or to be disadvantaged, because it makes debate into a ridiculous exercise (and I consider making good things appear ridiculous in order to achieve personal gain to be bad form), and because it is aesthetically unpleasant (and I consider intentional ugliness inflicted on others to be bad form). Also, if you spread I won't flow as much, won't understand as much, and won't believe you as much. If both teams spread, then I'll just have to guess at who won, which is very likely something that you don't want me to do. Please speak in a clear, persuasive voice at a reasonable public debate speed, and be sure to point out when the other side is spreading, show the harms, then show why they should lose on that. I'll probably buy it.

If your debate strategy includes using tactics that have the effect of giving you an unfair advantage over your opponent, your chances of winning will go down. Your arguments should give you the advantage, not your sneaky approach, your hidden claims, your abusive framework, or your tricky wording. Again, call out your opponent's sneakiness. This is especially fun and elegant in an LD round when your opponent values morality, justice, fairness, etc., and you call them out for violating standards of morality, justice, or fairness.

I prefer clear, well-reasoned arguments that are logically valid and well supported by warrants and evidence. I also value impacts. Show me magnitude and probability. I will evaluate these by taking on the stance of an intelligent person who is well educated, open minded, and not a fool. If you read a card but don't put it into the context of a clear argument, then I won't care about it. You have to use evidence to support your warranted arguments. Your cards are your evidence. I hear many LDers giving lengthy quotes of dense philosophy, without contextualizing the quoted speech. I would much prefer that you summarize the entire argument of the philosopher clearly, briefly, and accurately, rather than quoting some paragraph that seems to support your interpretation. I almost never buy appeals to authority. If you say that Philosopher X says Y, therefore Y is true, I will probably not believe you. Feel free to call your opponent on this.

Since I think that debate is a worthwhile activity that can positively shape the character of youth, I value having fun and being nice. I don't want to spend an hour or so with people who are being mean to each other. Let's have fun and enjoy the round.

I won't leave my knowledge, training, or prejudices at the door, mainly because I can't (if I were truly tabula rasa, I would be an infant or an imbecile). Instead, I'll try to be aware of them and limit the impact of my own opinions or knowledge on the debate. If you don't make the argument, I will try not to make it for you. You must do all the work in the debate. I will, however, apply my knowledge of effective argumentation and the "reasonable man" test to the arguments in the debate. If you give me a weighing method and a clear path to signing the ballot for you, your chances of winning the round go up. Please understand that I will fail to leave behind my biases, assumptions, prejudices, etc. This is a feature of being human. We can't control the processes of our thought very well, and we are largely unaware of what guides and controls our thinking. Your job as a debater is to make these biases, assumptions, and prejudices irrelevant against the overwhelming power of your arguments. Good luck.

Please understand that I will likely be judging you after having taught children all day or having traveled a long distance and slept poorly. I will probably not be at my best. This is true for many of your judges. You should consider taking this into account when you write your cases and make your arguments. After you lose a round that you think you should have won, don't complain about the stupid judge. Instead, consider what you could have done differently to compensate for that judge not being at his or her cognitive best. That's your responsibility. I don't want to think during a round. Thinking is hard. It's not my job. I often disappoint debaters when I am required to think. Your job is to pre-think the round for me, better than your opponent does. The team that does this best will win.

It's up to the round to decide on the framework. If your framework is abusive or unreasonable, I'll drop it and favor your opponent's analysis, especially if your opponent calls it out as such. I prefer realistic frameworks that generously look at the resolution as though the debate were really a public forum (even in LD) for discussing an important issue. I also prefer realistic arguments that are accessible to the public.

It bothers me when debaters don't know their case because someone else wrote it, they haven't researched the topic, or they are just using the cards that came with the briefs without trying to understand the bigger picture. This become a problem when debaters misinterpret cards or philosophers they don't understand. If your opponent calls you on your card and disputes what it means, then I will call for the card at the end of the debate and make my own judgment. I don't want to do this for a number of reasons, mainly because I don't want to do the work that you should be doing. That being said, I know a lot about many subjects, so if I think that you are misinterpreting a card, I may call for it, even if your opponent has not called you out on it. I don't like to do this, but I also don't like misinterpreted or false cards to affect a round, and I don't expect high school students to have comprehensive knowledge of the world. If I think that your card was misinterpreted, then I will drop the argument it supports.

Please do the work for me. Make it easy for me to decide who wins. Tell the story of the round. Be organized on the flow in your rebuttals.

If your opponent calls for a card, they may continue to prep while you search for it, without that time counting against their prep. This is the procedure at the TOC, which I particularly like because it doesn't add any time to the round, but encourages teams to provide their opponents with the cards they ask for in a timely manner. If you don't have the card, and the context surrounding it, then I will drop the argument that is supported by the card. If your card clearly says something other than what you say it does, I will very likely vote for the other side. Please don't misrepresent your evidence.

Regarding policy debate: Every round that I have judged in policy debate has come down to judge adaptation. Whoever adapts best to my limitations as a judge (see above) will likely win the round (or, if you prefer, my ballot). My recommendation is that policy debaters should have two cases: one that they normally run and another that they write for judge adaptation. Debaters should also practice adaptation whenever they can, making sure that their arguments are comprehensible (at a minimum) and convincing (this should be the target) to normal, educated people.

Eddie Young Paradigm

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