Yale Invitational

2015 — CT/US

Ann Bird Paradigm

Ann Bird Paradigm/Philosophy


I am an attorney.  I see PF debate as similar to an attorney’s oral argument, where  the goal is to convince the audience to adopt the speaker’s point of view.  The key is to make the process as easy for the audience as possible. 


The most convincing arguments are:


1.              delivered slowly enough to allow the audience to hear, understand, note, and also think about as they are presented;

2.              well organized;

3.              simple; and

4.              relatable.


The first speaker should give listeners an outline of the entire argument at the outset, and the last speaker should explain how that outline was fulfilled.  The argument should not require the audience to accept more than three or four subordinate points, and it should not have more than one or two sources of evidence or support for each point.  Finally, the argument should demonstrate why the proposition impacts and/or reflects the lives of the listeners.


I will reward debaters who present a convincing argument without regard to whether I am actually convinced.

Imen Boussayoud Paradigm

A little about me: I debated for Brooklyn Technical High School for around 3 years, and now I'm a freshman at Hunter College. I ran primarily K/Performance arguments,but Ill listen to all. This year (2014-2015) is my first season judging JV/Varsity HS debate.

The 'I know most of you are reading this right before the round or super quickly while trying to pref 200 judges' Philosophy:

0- Overview- Before I get into specifics, what's most important is to DO WHAT YOU'RE GOOD AT. Don't change what your strategy is based on what's in this philosophy (except for #8, that's non negotiable) if anything just try to improve it. Be comfortable in round and funny, I'm not a scary person.

1- K/Performance teams- Love them, love to hear them, but don't dare to run them if you don't know what you're talking about. As someone who used it plenty of times, I know what BS sounds like. If you have a great innovative argument or interpretation, I'll be over the moon! If you just read that I like K's and run an old cap file that you have no idea what the literature is, you will most likely not get a ballot off of me.

2- CP/Disad debates- I enjoy hearing them, as long as you have a smart CP and use it to cut through the other teams offense, that's an easy ballot. However, dont spread through 8 DA's and 3 CP's- I dislike the throwing shit against a wall and seeing what sticks strategy. Pick a couple off and use them well.

3- Case- PLEASE PLEASE PLEASE engage in a case debate. Neg- Put specific offense on case, challenge the aff! Aff- Please use your case past the 1ac. Extend your cards and smart arguments, the 1ac is 8 minutes of offense for you in the rest of the debate, use it like that!

4- Theory/T- I like theory. I dislike a quick blip, but if you make the theory offense you have specific to the aff/neg and give me offensive reasons to lean your way I'll be convinced. Please call out aff condo if you see it. A good T debate is the same, make sure to give strong competing interpretations.

5- Framework- Not my favorite argument. I'll hear it, but if it's the same repetitive blocks I've heard over and over again, I probably won't vote on it. Again, like theory, give me specificity! Call out warrants of the aff that are problematic, and you better give me a damn good reason as to why a policy will solve the harms of the aff.

6- In Round- Please, be persuasive, be funny and approachable, it seriously helps a lot in making the round a better experience for everyone! Make sure to impact EVERYTHING and specifically answer the other teams offense. In the 2nr/2ar, the best strategy which cannot be repeated enough is WRITE MY BALLOT FOR ME. At the end of the round when I give my decision, if it's what your final rebuttal was, that means you get perfect speaks.

7- Speaker Points- I'm generous with speaker points. I start out at a 28, add and subtract points based on speaking ability and what happens in round. You get an extra half a speaker point if you reference Poussey from OINTB, anything from A Song of Ice and Fire or Game of Thrones, (especially Dolorous Edd), Naruto, and PLEASE PLEASE FMA Brotherhood. Seriously, I will add that on the spot. 


Any more specific questions, feel free to ask me in round! Have a good day everyone, and good luck debating! :* :)

William Cheung Paradigm

Here is my short biography for you to know who I am:
Hi, my name is William. I am currently a doctoral student in the German department at NYU. I am familiar with a number of debate authors and have taken classes with and work with people like slavoj zizek, avital ronell, fred moten, etc. As a shameless self-plug and a way for you to perhaps understand where I am coming from, what literature I work with, and how I think here is my departmental website:
As for debate experience, I used to debate for CUNY debate in college for 4 years, reading critical arguments in the Northeast. I won a handful of regional tournaments and broke at CEDA. I also coach for Brooklyn Technical High School (sometimes we sign up at Brooklyn Independent). I have been coaching there for 6 years (wow time flies) and have had my debaters make it far in national tournaments as well as qualify for the TOC four times. Because I work with Brooklyn Tech (a UDL school), I am also connected to the NYCUDL.

Here is the start of my paradigm:
As everyone else says, rule of thumb: DO WHAT YOU’RE GOOD AT
Whether your go-to strat is to throw stuff at the wall and hope it sticks, a straight up disad/cp, or a one-off K; I will be more than happy to judge your round…
given that you:

1) Have a claim, warrant, and impact to every argument. It isn’t an argument absent these three elements, and I will have trouble/not be able to/want to adjudicate what you’ve said.
2) Make sure, on that note to properly explain your positions, don’t make an assumption that I know your DA scenario (perhaps fill me in on the internal work), or K jargon. Maybe i haven't judged that many rounds this topic and don't understand abbreviations right away - help me out.
3) Have comparative analysis of evidence, arguments, and preformative styles as it compares to your own and how I ought toprioritize impacts as it relates to your framing of the round.
4) Be Persuasive, it will go a long way to making me to sign my ballot your way if you can make the round enjoyable, touching, funny, etc – it will also help your speaks.
5) Write the ballot for me in your 2nr/2ar, tell me how you win. Take risks, and don’t go for everything. Make me think, “woah, cool, gonna vote on that” “What they said in the last rebuttal was exactly how I prioritized stuff too, judging is soooo easy [it's often not :(]"

As for some nitty gritty details:

1) I love a good K or performance debate but absent the four points above, I won’t “hack” for your position. For instance, saying racism bad without analysis towards your opponent’s position (warrant comparison) won’t get you very far in the debate. I will very often sympathize with you, as my personal debate career revolves around the K more than often, but I will NOT do the work for you.
2) I love smart, strategic CPs

3) I love absurd, creative arguments – unlike most judges (don’t get too carried away), I enjoy inventive and properly executed arguments whether they be freshly cut CPs like above, or criticisms that challenge debate structures. Reading poems, speaking babble, and “mirroring” your opponents etc, are things I will not immediately hate, just again, PROPERLY execute it. On that note, if you are a victim of some babbly criticism, please go for framework
4) Go for theory cheap shots in front of me, just do it persuasively. In-round abuse stories help, pre-empt your opponents final speech, and close the doors
5) Go for T in front of me – A good T debate that that includes a discussion on how the topic should be limited, what the value of a particular interp is, and how judges ought to evaluate an interpretation is something I find enjoyable. Just as always, be persuasive!
6) Have case debates – forcing your opponents to debate their case position with specific, smart arguments will always go a long way. Even if it is only defensive, mitigating offense will go a long way, and often throws people off balance. I find there to be a striking lack of case debate from my experience, and would be more than happy to judge more of it

Also, some other things:

1) Look up sometimes when I judge you to gauge my reaction - perhaps you might have said something off-putting sounding unintentionally (race/gender/etc) or have gone for a terrible, terrible flow and I have cringed. It will give you a clue
2) I have no problem voting on terminal defense or presumption
3) I will default to competing interpretations and body counts unless alternative mechanisms of evaluating the round or alternative impacts are introduced and analyzed in opposition to bodies in a debate. For instance, I will presume nukes hurt, unless you tell me death isn’t an impact and why
4) I will avoid looking at evidence, unless there is a dispute over evidence in a round or a debater spins it as part of being persuasive
5) I am an open minded judge, and respect all “realms” of debate, though of course, I will always already have some bias, I will do my best to mitigate it.

Tom Cork Paradigm

Overall Paradigm:

Tabula Rasa judge:  

  • If the presented Plan is in a Stock Issues format, then I will vote as a stock-issues judge once Kritiks and Topicality are won.  
  • If a Comparative Advantage Plan is run, then I will shift to a policymaker framework and weigh Advantages against DAs (see the note on DAs below), once Kritiks and Topicality are won.
  • If a Kritikal Aff is run, then all bets are off.  Run framework and tell me why I should be voting for you.

Kritiks are a priori to Topicality, which in turn is a priori to the Plan.


I enjoy spreading, but I dislike fast mumbling.  If you’re not a proficient spreader, slow down.  Reducing speed for tags, cites, and underviews helps your case immensely.


Theory won’t win a debate on its own.  Claiming in-round abuse or that your argument is better for education requires justification and strong links.


I love Kritiks, but they must be strongly linked to the Plan.  Otherwise, Kritiks are non-unique DAs.

Tell me the story of the Kritik.  I want to hear persuasion and thought behind these arguments.  A well-done K will make my weekend.


It can be tough to weigh DAs against a Stock Issues case.  If a Stock Issues case is given by AFF, I would appreciate NEG providing only DAs that diminish/turn the stock issues of the Plan.

Please, no politics DAs unless you can prove that the loss of political capital extends past enactment of the plan.  I am a strong believer in Fiat.

Things that make my heart go pitter-pat:

  • Confident, assured underviews
  • Focusing on the claims above the evidence
  • Teams that stay on the offense and show clear strategy
  • TOPICALITY (as long as it is a well-structured T debate that is strongly linked to the Plan)

Things that make me cringe in my seat:

  • Evidence battles
  • Any kind of murky ethics (mis-claiming dropped contentions, falsely stating rules, overusing flash time for prep, etc.)
  • Having to vote on a weakly supported, but crucial, argument that wasn't answered.

Jonathan Diaz Paradigm

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Kale Fithian Paradigm

As a Lincoln Douglas Judge I am a very traditional judge from a very traditional area of the country. With that, comes all of the typical impacts.

I am not able to flow spreading very effectively at all.

I, very rarely, judge policy, but those would be in slower rounds as well. Because of that, though, I am at least somewhat familiar with K debate, K AFF, theory, CP's, etc.

For me to vote on progressive argumentation in LD, it has to be very clearly ARTICULATED to me why and how you win those arguments. Crystal clear argumentation and articulation of a clear path to giving you the ballot is needed.

Melinda Formola Paradigm

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Jordanne Gizzarelli Paradigm

Email: jgizzy96@gmail.com

Background: I debated for four years for Newburgh Free Academy. I was a policy and LD debate. I primarily did policy for my first two years and LD in my last two years, both circuit style debate. This is my fifth year coaching/judging for the Lexington Debate. I was both a critical and traditional debater so feel free to run whatever you like. Speed is 100% fine with me just be clear.I am currently a graduate student in New York City getting my Master's in Biological Sciences, with the intentions of attending Medical School next fall. I have been judging debate since 2014 in both Policy and LD.

My Theory on Theory:
In the past, I have viewed theory pretty negatively. I'm not the biggest fan of it, but I will vote on it if you keep these things in mind:

1. If you say that you should have access to an RVI, tell me what constitutes an RVI. I generally do not accept "I meets" as a reason to access an RVI, but feel free to change my mind.

2. If the opposing debater is giving me a bunch of "I meets," annihilating the standards, or doing anything else to take out a significant part of the argument, I am not going to penalize them for simply not having a counter interp.

3. I have had tons of rounds in which debater N has a theoretical objection to the 1AC. Debater A then responds with a counter interp in the 1AR. By then end of the round, I have offense that links to both interps, and no reason to prefer one shell/standard over the other. Do not leave me in this position. Find ways to layer the theory debate and explain how standards interact.

4. No new 2AR theory.

5. Tell me why your theoretical objection comes before another


Kritiks: The Kritik is by far my favorite position in Policy and LD debate. Know what you are talking about. The explanation of the K needs to be done outside of of the author: for example, if you are running D&G, don't drop the term rhizomatic expansion and think that I know what that means. Explain it. Nothing gets me upset than a K team that drops terms and does not explain how those terms interact with the argument. I hate boring and generic links, do you work! Make sure to have a link scenario. The alternative, I feel is the most important mechanism of the K. Explain to me why the alternative is the most important part of the K and why this is the only way to accomplish the plan/case/WHATEVER.

Disadvantages: I don’t mind a few DAs here and there just don’t over kill it! Please if you are going to run politics don’t make it ridiculous and make sure your internal link is new and not something from four years ago.

Counterplans: Counterplans are counterplans I’ll vote on it if it’s there.


Truth vs. Tech--I will evaluate arguments based on the flow and will do very little work to imagine some "embedded clash" that isn't there. But at the end of the debate I will decide each argument by asking who I feel won it based solely on the arguments presented in the round.

Strat: Establish your position/advocacy. Link. Impact. Weigh extensively. Tell me why I should vote for you. If you do not tell me what to do with a given point "x", I will not vote off it unless there is literally nothing else for me to vote off of. Do not assume that I will auto extend drops, or that I will impact/link/weigh cross applications for you. It's your job to tell me why you win, explain it to me like you would explain it to your parents! Act like I don’t know (even though I do) *this will also result in better speaker points*. If something is important to my ballot, please tell me so, and spend time on it don’t glance over it. * I am 100% okay with any kind of case. Do what you like this is your show!

Kathryn Gross Paradigm

I am open to new arguments, however, solvency is key in any argument presented to me. I am not a fan of conditional arguments and kicking what seems important at the moment until you can no longer support it. Be respectful of your opponent - debate the topic, not the person. It is imperative that you are organized and methodical in your speeches - I value clarity over speed. Be creative - the same boring arguments, tend to have my mind wander. Keep me engaged with your passion and your ingenuity!

Jonathan Horowitz Paradigm

Hi. I debated at Glenbrook North HS in Northbrook for 4 years, 1.5 in policy and 2.5 in LD. I was the LD coach at Loyola Blakefield HS in Baltimore for 3 years followed by being the debate coach for Chicagoland Jewish HS in Deerfield, IL, New Trier HS in Winnetka/Northfield, IL, Bronx Science, Beacon HS in Manhattan, and the director of debate at Mamaroneck HS in Mamaroneck, NY. I've also worked at multiple debate camps and have been a private coach for multiple debaters. Trust me, I've seen it all.

Last updated 11/18/18. (Updated because debate has changed).

LD Paradigm:

I will vote on any argument, in any weighing mechanism provided. I do not discriminate, I'm find with speed (though sometimes my flowing can be bad), fine with theory, fine with kritiks, whatever you want to do. It's your round, have fun with it.

That being said I do have one very important caveat:
Extensions are key! Every extension needs to have the word extend/pull through the flow/or similar wording attached to it. Then it needs to have a warrant for what is being extended, finally the extension needs an impact back to the weighing calculus. If that is the value/value criterion mechanism then it needs to impact back to the VC that is being used for the round. If that is some other mechanism, it needs to be impacted to that weighing mechanism (theory means voters I guess). That weighing mechanism and the warrants for the mechanism should be extended (In a v/vc model the vc should be extended along with the argument). If these things are not done then the arguments will not be evaluated in the same depth and I might not give you credit, or as much credit, for an argument that you may have clearly won on the flow. I guess in simpler terms I have a high threshold for extensions. Also, when extending please extend along with the warrant please compare your arguments to other arguments. The best extensions are not just argument extensions but have comparative weighing along with the arguments.

Other things I've noticed about my preferences for debate: (This is just a list of things I like, none of these are necessary to win a round)
- I tend to prefer debaters who debated similarly to how I debated. What does this mean? I debated in an old school national circuit LD style. On the aff that meant a very broad criterion with mutually exclusive contentions that I tried to kick out of as much as possible (usually at the end of the 2AR, I had one contention and maybe framework). On the neg, it meant a short NC, no more than 2 minutes, with extensive analytical responses to the aff. While it might not help you win the round, debate has changed a lot, it will help your speaker points.

- I like a 2AR that isn't on the flow. What does this mean? The 2AR should be more of a story speech that merely references the flow. A lot of weighing/crystallizing or time on voting issues.

-I like even/if stories. They tend to make the round clearer and make my life easier.

-LD debaters need to stop saying "we" when referring to themselves. You are a singular human being and not one half of a partnership. If you say "we" while referring to yourself you will lose 0.1 speaker points. I will also interrupt your speeches to ask "who is we?" Be prepared.

-I'm a leftist politically. Property rights arguments and other capitalist arguments are not particularly persuasive to me and I don't like hearing them. That doesn't mean I won't vote on them, it just means if you have something else it's probably a good idea to run it.

-I presume coinflip. That means if I can't find any offense or way to vote I will flip a coin to decide the round. I have done this quite a few times and never want to do it again but I'm not afraid to do it and if I think your round warrants it, a coinflip will happen. (That said the only times I've done it has been in rounds where there have been on offense by either side so as long as offense exists I will not flip a coin).

-I like philosophy, I am a philosophy major. That said I'm not good at flowing it, especially when spread at the beginning of the speech. So if you do read philosophy slow down a little bit so that I can catch your arguments.

-Going off that last point, my major is in continental philosophy; which means I take classes on all those critical authors you've wanted to use in rounds. Kritiks are wonderful! If you know what are you talking about, please run them in front of me. Ks do not need an alt, though it is preferable. Make sure to understand the interactions between your position and the position of what your opponent is running. Also just because your opponent is running a K does not mean you lose the round.

- Please start the AC/NC with I affirm/I negate. It doesn't take away from your word economy and it gives me a second to "catch up" and get used to your spreading/debating voice so that I don't miss your first argument. You don't need to re-state the resolution though, that's unnecessary.

-Something most debaters forget is that as a judge I do not look to see what you are reading while you are reading it. Therefore, be more specific in signposting then off the Martin card 1..2..3 etc. Don't just say Martin, say what Martin said as well, because I might not have gotten the author name Martin but I got the argument s/he made. Also, be clear about where Martin is on the flow. If Martin is a contention 1 card, say that she is in contention 1.

- WEIGH! One of the things I'm almost always unsure of after a round is which argument to evaluate first. Do I look to the Disad, the spike, the contention 1? Most debate rounds involve multiple arguments that could "come first" and people telling me the order in which to evaluate arguments and which arguments are more important makes my life easier. It also means you'll be more likely to win because the argument that you're saying is most important/comes first is probably also the one that you're winning the most. WEIGH! Seriously WEIGH!

- Policy style arguments have started to come more and more into LD and people like running them in front of me. That's fine, I really like them. However, if you are running them you also take on policy-style burdens. For example, if you read a plan then you have to fulfill the 4 criteria of the HITS (if you don't know what that is, you shouldn't be running a plan. Also, considering the last person to lose on significance was Tom Durkin in the 1978 NDT, significance doesn't matter anymore). Most importantly, is that policy has a status quo whereas LD does not. That means that you need to orally give me the dates of evidence! If you're running a DA I need to know that the uniqueness is actually unique, if it's a plan that the inherency is actually inherent etc. Evidence without dates on it means that I won't give you credit for uniqueness or inherency claims that you need in the debate round. If your opponent points out that you didn't read those dates then I will give zero credit for any uniqueness/inherency claim and assume that your evidence is from 1784 and take away any offense that is based off of that plan/DA (I will also give said opponent at least a 29). So make sure to tell me those dates!

- I've recently read A LOT of social movement theory and have also been actively been involved in crafting strategy for a social movement. This has made me significantly more wary of most kritik alternatives. Kritik alts either make no sense, are not realistic, would never be adopted by wide ranging social movements, or are actively harmful to spreading social movements. It won't change how I vote, if the alt is won, but it does mean that common sense arguments against K alts will be considered more important.

- A priori/pre-standards arguments/other tricky-esque nibs. If you are losing everything else on the flow I need a reason to uniquely prefer your 3 sentences over the rest of the flow. If that does not happen I will find it very hard to vote for you over somebody else who is winning the rest of the round. Not that I won't evaluate the argument at all it will just be weighed against the rest of the round and if someone else is winning the rest of the round I will vote for the person winning the majority of the round. In simpler words if you go for an a priori, go for it hard. I'm not going to buy it simply because it is dropped.

- Metaethics. I used to have a long screed about metaethics here. It's been deleted (you can read it on the back edits if you're really interested) as I've decided that, while I agree still with what I said before, meta-ethics are being used a lot better by debaters so that it doesn't apply as much. I do think meta-ethics have a place in debate but they need to be used properly. Basically, meta-ethics cannot be used as a "magic wand" to get out of framework debate. You still need to provide an ethic to meet your meta-ethic. Just saying my meta-ethical util comes before your ethical deont haha! is not enough. Language might be indeterminate but that doesn't mean we default to util (or deont) unless it's justified.

Since everybody asks me about how I evaluate theory here it is:

I don't mind theory, I will vote on it and I will vote on it in cases where I think no actual abuse has occurred or even times where the argument itself is patently non-abusive. But before you rush to pull out your three theory shells, I really don't like voting on it. Moreover, of all the decisions where people have argued with me after the round, 2/3 of them are because of theory. My paradigm seems to be different than other judges so I would say run theory at your risk. Now of course you're asking why is my paradigm different? Simple because I don't default to a monolithic competing interpretations framework, you don't need a counter-interp/RVI/etc. to win theory (though it is helpful and in a case of offense vs. no offense I'm going to default to offense). I'm not as technical on theory as other judges, simply saying my argument is not abusive, drop the argument not the debater, or even talking about reasonability will probably be enough to convince me to not vote on theory. In other words, I default to reasonability, though will be persuaded otherwise. Also, in a round between two equal theory debaters or even a round where both debaters have competent theory blocks, theory turns into a crapshoot (which, by the way, is most theory rounds) so while I will do my best to sort through it that doesn't mean my decision won't be somewhat random.

Also, I guess most LD judges don't evaluate theory this way so I should point this out. If you only go for theory in the NR/2NR or 2AR then the affirmative/negative does not need a RVI to win the theory debate because the only offense at the end of the round is on theory which means that I am merely evaluating who did the better theory debating and not worrying about substance at all. The RVI only comes into play if there is a contestation of substance AND theory at the end of the debate.

Feel free to come up to me at any tournament and ask me questions about anything, I can't guarantee you a great answer but I can guarantee that I will try to respond.

Policy Paradigm:

I will vote on any argument, in any weighing mechanism provided. My main philosophy is it's your round not mine so do what you want. I think a lot of how I judge policy is probably transferred from LD so look there for good stuff. One caveat to that, if there is something that seems very specific to LD (like saying "we" for example) do not bring that into a policy context.

Obviously I have some caveats for that:

First and foremost is that LD is most of what I've debated and coached. Though policy kids have this outdated version of what LD is, there is now every argument in policy in LD also with extra stuff too! I am fine with speed etc. Don't worry about that. However, I did not go to camp, I did not do research on the resolution (whichever one it is) and don't know what is stock or what isn't. I know, more or less, what aff my team is running and generic stuff to be used on any topic. Your explanation barrier for me understanding topic specific arguments then is a little bit higher.

The other important take away is that social conventions of what you can and cannot do in LD and policy are slightly different. For example, RVIs in LD are not joke arguments but made in almost any theory round (though I don't like RVIs in policy). LD does not have the concept of overviews in the same way as policy and what is considered "line by line" is very different. I've been able to figure out most of these biases but occasionally I'll mess up. Just be aware.

Despite my philosophy/LD background I actually like "policy" rounds better. Give me a CP/D/A debate over a K round. I find them easier to decide. That said I do love a good K and have picked up mostly Ks in my time as a policy judge.

I default to reasonability on T and theory issues.

I don't know why this has become a thing but apparently people don't say AND or NEXT after finishing cards in the 1AC or 1NC. You still need to do that so that I know when to flow.

Utilitarianism is moral philosophy that evaluates the morality of actions based on the consequences. This means that small scale/structural violence impacts are utilitarian because we care about the consequence of structural violence. Stop saying these arguments are not utilitarian or answering them as if they are not utilitarian. They are.

Willie Johnson Paradigm

I feel the need to fix this huge communication issue in the debate community it will start with my judging philosophy. If you are a debater who say any of the following "Obama is president solves for racism" or "we are moving towards less racism cause of Obama or LBS" and the opposing team reading a racism arg/advantage or colorblindness I will instantly vote you down with 25 points for the debater who said it.

Jumping: Novice please don't but if you must which you all will you have 20 seconds after you call for prep to be stop till I consider it stealing prep and instead of restarting prep I will just measure it by the ticker timer in my head (which you do not want). I suggest that you carry a debate jump drive, viewing computer or the cloud system. For Open debaters I get even more angry with the lack of competence you guys have with being responsible when it comes to jumping files and card. I have a soft warmness for debaters who are mostly paper and may involve me smiling like a boy with a crush don't be alarmed it is just me remembering my old days.

Speaking: I believe that clarity comes before all other ideals of what we often fantasize a good speaker to be, a debater has to be clear so that I spend more time analyzing and processing what is said then trying to comprehend what the hell is being said. This helps in the rebuttals when there is more cross applying of arguments instead of me sitting there trying to ponder what argument reference is being made. Speed is something I can adjust to not my general forte yet if you are clear I can primarily make easier adjustments (look I sound like a damn metronome). I tend to give hints towards the wrongs and rights in the round so I won’t be put off if you stare at me every now and then. Debates should be a game of wit and word that upholds morals of dignity and respect do not be rude and or abrasive please respect me, the other team, your partner and of course yourself

The Flow: My hand writing is atrocious just incredibly horrible for others at least I generally flow tags, authors and major warrants in the world of traditional debate. Outside of that with all the other formats poetry, performance, rap, theatricals and so forth I just try to grasp the majority of the speech incorporating the main idea

The K: yeah I so love the K being from a UDL background and having running the K for a majority of my debate career, yet don't let that be the reason you run the K I believe that a great K debate consist of a in-depth link explanation as well as control of the clash. There should be Impact calculus that does more then tell me what the impact is but a justification for how it functionally shapes the round which draws me to have a complete understanding of the Alt versus the plan and there must be some idea of a solvency mechanism so that the k is just simply not a linear disad forcing me to rethink or reform in the status quo (K= reshape the Squo)

The T debate: First I find it extremely hard to remember in my entire debate career where I cast a ballot for topicality alone yet it is possible to get a T ballot you must have a clear abuse story I will not evaluate T if there is not a clear abuse story. Voters are my best friend and will become a prior if well explained and impacted, yet I do believe education and fairness have extreme value just want to know why.

The D/A: Well I actually find myself voting more on the Disad then the K I just think that the disad debate offers more tools for the neg then the K yet it is the debater who optimize these tools that gain my ballot, link debates should contain at least a specific link as well as a an established Brink generic links are not good enough to win a D/A ballot and any good aff team will destroy a a generic link unless there is some support through a link wall. Impact debates must be more than just nuke war kills all you have to place comparative value to the status quo now and after plan passage. Yet a disad is an easier win with the advantages of solvency deficits and the option of competitive counter plans.

The Counter Plan: Competition is key if there is no proof that the end result is not uniquely different from the aff plan it is less likely to capture my ballot. So C/P solvency and competition is where my voter lies on the C/P flow this involves establishing and controlling the clash on the net benefit. PIC's usually rely on proving that the theoretical value of competition is worth my jurisdiction.

Theory: cross apply T only thing with a theory debate that is different is you must be able to show in where the violation actually happens yet I find theory to be easy outs to traditional clash.

Framework: this is where my jurisdiction truly falls and it is the teams’ job to not only introduce the functioning framework but to uphold and defend that their framework is worth singing my ballot towards. I have no set idea of a framework coming into the round your job is to sell me to one and by any means my job is not to look at what framework sounds good but which is presented in a manner that avoids judges intervention (really just the team that prevents me from doing the bulk of the work if any).

In general: I love a good old debate round with tons of clash and where there is an understanding and display of your own intellect I find it hard to judge a round where there is just a display of how well a team can read and make reference to evidence, usually I hope that ends or is done less coming out of the 1AR. I'm a man who finds pleasure in the arts and execution of organic intellect and can better give my decision and opinion based mainly on how one relates back to competitive debate, if debate for you is a card game then it forces me to have to make decision based off my comprehension of the evidence and trust me that is never a good thing, yet a round where the discussion is what guides my ballot I can vote on who upholds the best discursive actions.

Adira Levine Paradigm

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Daniel Mendes Paradigm

Daniel Mendes
East Side High School graduate (2014)
Newark, NJ
I go to Rutgers- Newark 

Just like any other judge I am best with well explained arguments and good analysis. I prefer this over teams that just read a million cards . I'm probably more suited to critical arguments as I have more experience with them but run what you are good at. I don't like cheap shots, I think debate is more educational and pedagogical than a game, treat your arguments wth value.
I don't see debate in a vacuum or disconnected from the real world.


Traditional Topicality/ Framework / Theory:
I find that when teams read this, it's always very recycled, the same blocks from 10 years ago.
If you are reading this against K affs, ... Those old same standards aren't that persuasive to me. Make it persuasive, do lots of analysis, voters are a big deal for me don't make it a blip.

I like good framework debates, but I think that your impacts have to really be fleshed out and have good analysis. Affirmatives should directly respond to standards, not just read their anti FW block and think it'll win them the debate, also don't just read a roll of the ballot and think you're good, justify it with counter standards and compare or it will cost you. 

I hate cheap shots, so when it comes to theory, if you are going for go for it. Make the impacts more nuanced and developed, make it matter and I will see it ias a legit argument.

These are fine, I like hearing all the creative and crazy ways to solve for advantages. Specific is better than generic. It better be competative.


I will vote on it if it's good and you win it. Don't just read hella cards in the 2nc block. Do big picture stories, you can read cards obviously but analyze it and make it apply to aff arguments
I may not be super familiar with the latest scenarios but if you explain all the steps in your overview and you win it then you're good. 


Awesome, win it. Make a good persuasive specific link. The Alternative is really important, I should know if it's something material or educational or etc. Read a framework especially against policy affs. Framework is also pretty important (roll of the judge and ballot and all that)


Policy/plan/USFG/Fiat type affs:

I'll vote for it. However you MUST win your framework interpretation against Critical arguments. Explain your permutations, what they look like, how they work, why it functions. I have no problem voting for these affs but you're not winning on fraework its hard to vote for you


Critical/ Performance Affs:
Nice, just tell me what ur method does and what that means in context of the debate community as well as the real world! I don't think these affs must defend the federal government or have a plan but I think planless affs should be atleast somehow related to the topic because then we can diversify our arguments and make them apply to whatever the res is :)  


Case: PLEASE PLEASE PLEASE engage in a case debate. Neg- Put specific offense on case, challenge the aff! Aff- Please use your case past the 1ac. Extend your cards and smart arguments, the 1ac is 8 minutes of offense for you in the rest of the debate, use it like that!


Flowing: I'd say I'm pretty average at flowing, if you're going through a huge list of standards or something slow it down, Slow it down on the tags. I am not a flow centric judge, i look at my flow to see what you said, if the analysis aint there neither is the argument. Frameworks and precedurals come first obviously then comes the aff vs counter methods,plans, alternatives, or SQ 


25s and a loss: Racism good, Slurs, inappropriate behavior. Just be appropriate and behave please


Good speaks: Be clear, and win. Be persuasive, be funny and approachable, it seriously helps a lot in making the round a better experience for everyone! I give speaker points for teams who know how to emphasize lines in their warrants rather than reading through it 500 wpm like a robot. I like passion and when people care about the things they read. 

I'm really laid back and I think debate is an activity that's fun and to learn and be competitive. Dressing and acting "proper" and closed cross ex and all that strict stuff is silly to me. Feel free to ask my any questions. 

Also I just want to say that if you don't agree with my decision feel free to ask questions and we can have a conversation with me after the round about how I interpreted the round, don't bicker with me and don't be rude. 

Jadon Montero Paradigm

4 years of policy in HS. A few months of parli at Yale. Cool with everything, but haven't judged a round in two years. Will come in well read on the topic, but this should still be helpful to you- if the meta has changed in the last few years then I probably won't know it. Prefer smart and well reasoned args over speed and cleverness.

Luke Newell Paradigm

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Ananth Panchanasam Paradigm

Ananth Panchanadam

Unionville High School’15 New York University in New York’19

Constrains: Stuyvesant, Unionville and NYU, Ransom Everglades 

Scroll down for ld philosophy.

CX Judge Philosophy:

I love debate and If you love debate then I will love you.

But In reality I want to support those who work really hard to come up in debate. I know that many of y’all have many interesting and complicated stories as to how you got here both in debate and to this tournament. I WILL GIVE YOU MY UNDIVIDED ATTENTION AND IF YOU DON’T THINK I AM FEEL FREE TO CALL ME OUT. I want to give you the respect you deserve. Debate is about the students at the end of the day and you need a fair judge.


Updated Paradigm 4/21/17:

I’ve decided to give my paradigm a much needed update for the TOC. I’m going to try and keep this short and to the point.

I don’t have particular biases towards arguments and I have coached performative, critical and policy based arguments. I decided that this paradigm update is better suited to address how you should approach deploying arguments.

However I will say I’ve always enjoyed watching Policy on Policy, Clash of Civs and Impact turns against ks.

First, You should write my ballot for me. This is more than just saying “we win a risk of solving dehumanization impact so vote aff”. I want you to resolve issues in these debates. So tell me why winning a risk that you solve dehumanization is important against other pieces of offense. Otherwise I am just left with a bunch of standalone arguments that I have to match together. That just increases the possibility that I may not see the debate the same way you do.

Second, Framing is everything: You should give me a way to visualize the debate. This can be ROB/ROJ or just offense that tells me what I should prioritize. This is usually the first thing I look for before making a decision. I highly suggest you use Framing arguments to resolve other arguments on the flow.

Third, Impact your arguments: You will have a very hard time winning on your offense if you don’t impact it out for me. They should have some sort of tangible impact. This is especially important for the K.

Fourth, Saying a bunch a big words and calling that a link doesn’t mean it’s a link. If you are not able to fundamentally tell me why the aff is bad then I don’t know why I should care or why I should vote neg. Link arguments should have external impacts. (Ex. X word is racist and using that word causes psychological violence) That is something I can vote on but reproducing the same jargon heavy language of the 1nc evidence doesn’t tell me why the affirmative is particularly bad.

Fifth, I put a big emphasis on the link debate. In K debates I am willing to look past the link debate if I am given a reason to. I also treat K links like linear disads. I also treat T and theory standards like linear disads.

Sixth, I dig strong spin but I will call for evidence in close debates.  

Old Paradigm:



Race/Queer/Ability etc… (What white people call “performance”): This is my jam. Don’t how ever think that just because you read these types of arguments you will automatically win against framework.

Intersectionality Perms: My Biggest pet peeve is when teams read a bunch of evidence about white women and then read 1 intersectionality card. It is a pathetic copout and won’t be rewarded. Your lesbian separatism or reproductive futurism aff isn’t intersectional and you shouldn’t try and make it. But if you do try and claim you’re intersectional and are facing against an actually intersectional aff then you have an uphill battle. You have prove that to me on a methodological level.

Flowing: While I don’t prefer doing this, If you do ask for me to not flow the debate round and the other team agrees as well I will entertain an alternative mode note taking. If the other team wants me to flow the round, I will flow unless you win a reason as to why I shouldn’t. If you do I will put my flows away and then judge the round without them. Unfortunately, I doubt winning that arg means you’ll necessarily win the debate but I can be persuaded otherwise.

Framing: To me your knowledge production is the way you “frame your work” so I like to hear meta-level framing questions. In terms of the ballot the judges conceptualization of debate etc… It is important you prioritize what your aff looks like in terms of my ballot.

Answering Framework: Saying “framework is racist because it excludes people of color” isn’t a very persuasive argument and is probably easily answered by any decent framework team. I think you all need to go on a more nuanced level as to how framework is problematic. I think contextualizing the aff in terms of the world under their interp is important. I also think its very important to spend the time to engage with the Topical version of the aff.

Overviews: I know we love reading verbose overviews and it is a really bad practice that trades off with other parts of the debate. If you are reading a pointless 2-3 minute overview I will just be really annoyed and probably doc speaker points. 

I enjoy these and like affs that are deployed smartly. So do your thing.

Inherency: the Squo is not the same as inherency. I hate when debaters think that inherency is a waste of your time its not so don’t tell me it is when it comes up.

I like advantages with specific internal links and impacts that actually relate to the link story you have provided. In heavy impact comparison debates I tend to lean towards a team with a stronger and more specific impact with a clear mechanism to overcoming the internal link level. I prefer when affs go after internal links on Disads and engage in very specific evidence comparison.


Inherency: I would prefer inherency take-outs to be a theory argument. Why is it wrong for the aff to not provide an attitudinal barrier? Why should I test the aff through a stock issues paradigm. These are things you need to foundationally establish to get my ballot. These are all things I am open to listening.

DA: I love well articulated Disads. I think they can and should be used very strategically. To win a DA the neg needs to win the Uniqueness Link/Internal link and impact and outweigh and turn the case. If the aff can solve the internal links of the DA then I don’t think a 1% risk of a link is enough to vote for the neg. I think specific DA + CP combo’s with internal link take outs on case are a thing of beauty

CP’s: I think the CP should be functionally and textually competitive. I they should solve the case and resolve the impacts/link level of the net benefit.

Case Debate: I think this is one of the worst aspects of debate now. People honestly read the same terrible open evidence impact defense. I like specific internal link takeouts over impact defense. I love impact turns. To me be specific. This also includes Kaff debate.


I  love these debates but I will only reward you if you know what you are talking about and you provide a CLEAR articulation of the alternative. Specific is always better. Even if you are reading a generic K make your link analysis specific with the case. I don’t like long verbose overviews. I think you need to link to the aff but if you frame it the right way I can evaluate your k as a competing method to the aff. The Role of the ballot/Framework debate most likely the first mode of evaluation. If you are winning framework and at least one reason why the status quo is better than the aff in terms of that framework then I will vote neg. Be tactical with it.

Language Args (Gendered language, ableist language etc…):

I think you should avoid using those words in general. If you are called out I may reduce .5 speaker points. If it becomes an argument in the debate I will vote on it but I don’t necessarily find it very persuasive if you aren’t somehow trying to overcome the structures that they are perpetuating. An easy way to avoid these debates is to NOT USE THEM. It’s easy way to be less oppressive.

I am also very protective of ESL/Foreign students in these situations. If they apologize and say they don't quite have a grasp of English I suggest you don't make it a voting issue and talk to them after the debate. If you keep pursuing it then you are making the space unsafe for these debaters and I'll probably vote you down on racism/xenophobia.  

Moral Abhorrence/bad arguments:
I will not vote on arguments such as racism good, sexism good or homophobia good. I think debate is an important space and these arguments are psychologically violent and should not be tolerated in an academic setting.

In round etiquette: I’m very relaxed with prep. Prep ends when you say “end prep”. Don’t be that kid who steals a minute of prep. I think being nice is a good idea. I think personal attacks should be based in something. Don’t be racist/sexist/homophobic etc… towards another debater.

Other than that just take a deep breath and enjoy your chance to debate because soon enough it will be gone.    

LD Paradigm:

Since I am judging at Apple Valley I will address LD issues:


I think theory arguments should have a fully fleshed impact scenarios. I treat theory standards like a disad (Uniqueness, link/internal link and impact). Tell me why “education” or “fairness” matters and why it is a reason to vote down the team not just the argument. I think the abuse explanation should be clear. I prefer actual abuse to be articulated. That doesn’t mean that I will not vote on potential abuse but you really need to win what potential abuse is enough to for me to vote for you. I guess with the rise of theory come RVI’s. You need to do comparative impact calculus between your abuse story and the other team’s abuse story.

I’ll personally think that “theory heavy” focus debate is not a good model. That being said I will vote on it if you win the arguments.

If you are reading a K argument, make sure you don’t double turn yourself with your theory.


Topicality is not a reverse voter, it is an affirmative burden to be topical! I want a clear reason why they violate. I need an outlined story. I am open to critical responses. If you want to impact turn away more power to you. If you want to K of T more power to you.

If you are reading a T/FW style argument, I have voted both ways and I am not really biased any particular way. That being said, I think saying I’m not persuaded by “k affs make people quit arguments”. I think there needs to be some depth.

I think you should isolate net benefits to the interp over there’s    

Role of Ballot/ Role of Judge/Framework:

Just like T and Framework I want net benefits to your framing of debate. Explain to me how your framing influences what I prioritize or how it influences the way I evaluate meta and micro level issues. I think it is important to explain your framing to the substance and the other T and theory arguments in the debate. 

Policy Style Arguments:

I am cool with policy style arguments. I think you should be clear as to how you solve your harms. If you want more as to how I evaluate them check out my policy paradigm.


I am cool with them. I explained it above in policy paradigm


Jeremy Pena Paradigm

Hi there,


While I was in high school I qualified for the TOC three times, clearing in my junior year and reaching the finals in my senior year. Back then, I ran plenty of arguments that were out of the mainstream, including de-development and utopian counterplans and deontological framing, but kritiks and the framework debate did not exist in their current forms. I did not debate in college and I do not judge college debate. A few years ago I began coaching at Albuquerque Academy, so I have had some time to catch up to high school debate as it is now.


I do my best to judge the round that the debaters want to have. That means that I often vote for a team that runs arguments that I don't prefer, because that team does a good job of explaining and debating the argument and the other team does not. I will not vote against a team simply because they don't debate in the style I prefer.




Almost all the "rules" of debate are debatable -- that's the beauty of the activity. Only the rules about the format of the activity are absolute. That includes time constraints, side constraints, and each debater doing one constructive and one rebuttal, etc. But any assertions about whether conditionality or severance or intrinsicness arguments (for example) are legitimate or illegitimate can be justified or attacked based on in-round abuse and their effect on the activity in general. By default, I think one or two conditional advocacies are okay, that the aff can't sever, and that the aff can't solve all the disads via intrinsicness spikes, but in any given round I could be convinced otherwise.


What I really don't like is a quick analytical argument that becomes a ballot-controlling showstopper in the rebuttals. Reverse voters, floating PICs/PIKs, and arbitrary role-of-the-ballot assertions can be abusive when they come out late in the debate and are suddenly the most important issue in the round.




I'm a big fan of a good T debate. Parsing words is challenging and fun, and directly relevant to life in the real world. Again, the impact is debatable and I'm just as open to reasonability / high threshold arguments on T as I am to limits and extra-T arguments.




A strange thing happens with kritiks. While I am highly suspicious of most K's, and particularly so of alternatives, I end up voting for K-heavy neg strategies frequently. That's because even the simplest K's can be very complex in their effect on the round, and many affirmative teams aren't confident in their ability to interrogate and refute a K. For the neg, my advice is to slow down a bit on the link explanation and say it in your own words. I credit analysis over "evidence" especially on the link. For the aff, my advice is, don't let them get away with anything. Challenge every part of the argument. A forceful, analytical no-link argument can win over any number of cards if the neg can't explain its link sufficiently clearly. I don't consider alternatives to be a settled area of debate, so I like to hear them attacked and defended. I heard one judge explain to an affirmative team, "I don't know what the link to the K was but the 2N sure read a lot of cards on it so I vote neg." I will never be that judge.




Framework arguments can produce some of the most thought-provoking debates. Because this mostly comes up when aff offers a kritikal or non-policy advocacy, my views here are similar to my views on K's. On the other hand, I do credit published evidence from debate scholars when it comes to framework; I think those sources are well-qualified to offer insight into the activity. A policy-oriented framework feels like "home" to me, but the contributions of some non-traditional affirmatives have been immeasureable. Bottom line: I'd love to hear a good framework debate.




There's nothing better than a genuine case-specific disad. But how often does that happen? I really like creative disads with up-to-date evidence. I like nuclear war as an impact, not because nuclear war literally will ensue but because those are truly the stakes when nations deliberate about foreign policy. Impacts abound: even if nuke war is off the table, something as "minor" in the debate sense as a US recession is a big impact to me (and probably exacerbates most structural impacts too, so argue that). But as big as impacts can get, links can get infinitely small. There are so many variables in this world that I will disregard trivial risks, so "infinite impact means you vote neg even on a microscopic probability" will be refuted easily.




Absent a K/framework situation, a negative team that doesn't use a CP cripples itself. Agent of action is an important question that we should debate. Neg doesn't always need solvency evidence of its own to carve up a case if the plan doesn't match the 1AC solvency. Despite that, there are some categories of counterplans that I dislike: conditions, consultations, study, delay, sunset are some examples. If a counterplan includes international or multi-actor fiat, i would like to hear that debated.




I often call for the plan. I will only call for evidence if the round really comes down to it and/or one of the debaters encourages me to do so. On the other hand, if both teams agree to flash or email me the speech docs in real time, that is fine with me. As to highlighting, my view is, if the round comes down to the evidence, you only get credit for the words you read, but the remainder of the writing can hurt you if it goes the other way. I encourage you to dissect the evidence of the opposition. Don't just say "no warrant," tell me what the evidence actually says and how it falls short.




Coaching is a second occupation for me, as I am also a lawyer for the federal government. I generally remain open to arguments that are critical of the federal government (the surveillance topic was very challenging in this regard). That said, if you make an argument like "every federal action is inherently racist," I will probably take it personally even if I try not to.


Oh yeah, disclosure refers to your practices too. Please don't ask me to enforce social norms regarding disclosure because I do not consider that my job.




Thanks for taking the time to read this, and congratulations on selecting such a rewarding activity.

Jaye Ross Paradigm



I am currently working as an assistant coach to the Newark Science debate team. I am very much indebted to debate for the person that I am today. I find debate (and especially debate rounds) to be very much a part of life. This means that I would encourage everyone to understand that the things you say in a debate round have real implications even outside of the debate round. Fellow debaters and opponents in the past, present, and future are not just obstacles, but are other people whether that is outside or inside civil society. Debate does not allow the things you say to exist in a vacuum, so as a judge, coach, educator, and a petty black man I will not tolerate or evaluate the following ideas (LIKE EVER):






(These are the only things that come to mind at the moment, I know and will try and add more, but understand I put these first for a reason.)




I’m a proud member of the Eastside debate team senor class of 2014. I am the closest friend with Daniel Mendes (who all of sudden became a celebrity in HS debate) and Chaz Wyche (if you don’t know about him you shouldn’t worry about it to affect my judging.). From my time on the Eastside debate team (Eastside BR) I am a member of the few teams from Newark to ever get a TOC bid (Scranton 2013) in over a decade. All my time in policy debate has been devoted to traveling, and debating in national tournaments all over the country (Scranton, Yale, Georgetown, Emory, U-Penn, NAUDL, etc). During my travels I have had Elijah Smith (CEDA AND NDT 2012 CHAMPION), Chris Randall (CEDA AND NDT NATIONAL 2013 DEBATER, and also Elijah’s partner), and Willie Johnson (CEDA 2013 FINAL ROUND JUDGE) as my coaches and most influential to my success as a debater. I am luck enough to have even judged at the college level of policy debates at tournaments such as Vermont, and West point and look forward to judging the HS level. 






I’ll try and be quick and painless for the people who are waiting to know how they should pref me. Now I have judged policy, critical, and performance, but I find performance to be the debates I’m truly most comfortable with. If you could not tell by the three coaches I have stated above, I am very familiar with performance rounds and by coincidence I am also a performance debater. I ran an Afro-pessimist critiques in all my national tournaments my senior year (exception Yale and Georgetown: I ran Decolonaility, there is a difference btw). At all the other the tournaments I have read at least 2 Wilderson cards in every speech I’ve given. There are other authors that I read that talk about anti-blackness, but the point is that if you are talking about black people I have probably read the books/articles they came from. Now policy is by no means something I can’t judge. No performance debaters I know have started out running performance arguments, the same is true for me that I had to learn policy debate in order to be the debater I am today so I’ll talk about the specifics of policy first. 






  • AFF

You should pick up on whether the negative will truly go for the argument, and let that choose how you will answer in the 2ac and 1ar. Reasonability is a really strong argument in front of me, but that does not excuse you for dropping any arguments that can be used to make topically important.

  • NEG

I do evaluate topically. If you are going for topically you need to go hard people. I will not vote for topically if you don’t hard for me in the block. I need in round abuse, topical versions of the Aff, and voters that are going to be impacted in the round in order for me to take topically as more than a time crew you thought of for the round. If you actually do go for topically in the 2nr (which I would be beyond shock and a little impressed if you do it well) to make me vote on topically you need to go for this argument for the whole five minutes. Topically is a prior question in the round it would only make sense to just go for topically in the 2nr. The way I see topically used now as a time screw for a very minimal infraction of the Affirmative that is probably resolved through reasonability.   



  • AFF

 The best thing you could do for me would to try and set up theory in cross x. A simple “What is the status of the off case position?” would help me to at least prepare for a theory debate. I also like theory on a separate flow so that needs to be in the order at the beginning of the speech.  That helps me evaluate the separate offense and defense on that debate. Theory like topically needs to have same time spent on it in order for me to vote for this argument. Your tagline will not be enough for me.  

  • NEG

It is of the utmost importance for you to set this argument up in cross x for me if you can. Theory should also be on a separate flow, and similar to what I said on the Aff. You need to spend time on his to have me vote on this.  



  • AFF

For the Affirmative the framework is really helpful to how I should evaluate. I can guest that a utilitarian framework is the way to evaluate your impacts or you can tell that utilitarianism is the framework, and give some comparative analysis if the negative has their own framework.  A role of the ballot and judge is something you also want in any 2ac because it makes sense.

  • NEG

I’m talking about the “Resolved means a USFG topical policy action”. This type of frame is the scorn of my life. You don’t know how many times I’ve heard this argument. I WILL CRINGE EVERY TIME I HEAR THIS ARGUEMNT. I will unfortunately listen to the argument, but no one will like this debate. I believe that you should probably just run the topical version of the plan against whatever Aff you didn’t care to engage with. You can still weight all the education and ground arguments, but we now have a better debate, and I’ll be a lot happier.



All Policy affirmatives NEED TO HAVE A CLEAR LINE BETWEEN THE INTERNAL LINK AND THE IMPACT OF EACH ADVANTAGE. I also need a clear line to the SOLVENCY AND HOW THAT WORKS FOR EACH ADVANTAGE. The Aff should tell a story and have a good flow to it. This means the Aff should not be you trying to read as many cards as you can in the 1ac. The 1ac should be slow on tags to contribute to the idea of telling a story. Even policy Affs can be creative. Don’t be afraid to something other than nuclear war/extinction and have some cool advantage with a framework behind how I should evaluate the advantage. The best example of this I can tell you is probably structural violence advantage that stops something like police brutally, but this will require work. I will be happy to see that effort in a debate round and be sure to recognize you in some way for that work.   (Probably a speaker higher)




They are ok, but make sure think is a clear link to the Aff. You also need to tell me how to evaluate this impact in round. The answer is YES! I would like a specific impact calculus for the round that compares all the impacts in the round.



If the counter plan doesn’t make any sense after the permutation then I will probably not vote for the counter plan. It needs to complete. That means a net benefit and a reason why the Aff is a bad idea. I believe that even if the counter plan solves the Aff it does not mean game over. The negative still needs a reason why the Aff is a bad idea on top of the net benefit or I will just vote Aff on the permutation. 








This for the Affirmative that have a plan text, but have a very philosophical background:





I LOVE CRITQUES, BUT IF YOU DON”T KNOW THE LITERATURE I WILL NOT LIKE YOU. This simply means if you read a critique you should have picked a book and read. Not just the introduction, but have read the book. You can easily tell an experience K debater from someone who is just beginning. I find that people can earn high speaks here, but with all high speaks they come to those who have a working knowledge of the hell they are talking about. Know Your Stuff. Links need to be as clear as possible. The better the link story, the better the speaker points. The alternative needs to solve the Aff or resolve the essential question posed in the debate. Make sure I know what the world of the alternative looks like. If you say that you end the work I need to know what the process looks like because my ballot will final end the world and I’ll take great pride in that.  






As stated above I’m very comfortable with this argument. Be sure to have some clear connection to the topic. IF YOU RUN THIS ARGUMENT YOU ARE THE REASON WHY THE SUN SHINES (not really tho)


I do believe that the negative can also have performances. These are really trick to deploy in a round sometime, but when done correctly they are one the most powerful arguments in debate. I prefer these debates to happen when the Aff gives there performance, and he neg provides a counter performance/methodology. These argument hold a special place in my heart as this was the only I ran on the negative of my senior. There is nothing special you get from me by reading this argument but that shouldn’t hinder you from reading this argument in front on me anyway.    






Jeffrey Yan Paradigm

Name: Jefferey Yan
Affiliation: Stuyvesant High School ’15
Binghamton University '19
Contact: jyan20@binghamton.edu
Background: Debated for 4 years in high school, debating in college for binghamton now

1. i think line by line as a guideline for the structure of flowing is effective

2. i like overviews but this 2nc trend of literally reading an 8 minute overview is old. tell me how i should flow it. please, for the sake of my flows.

3. flashing does not count as prep, but you need to be efficient and not excessive about it.

K: this is where i'm most comfortable. in college i have had much more experience and am much more familiar with antiblackness/afropess, anthro, cap, talkin about asians, etcwhatever. i am less familiar with stuff further towards the pomo lit - while i think some of these arguments are convincing and am more than willing to vote on them, you need to do a little more to contextualize your arguments in these debates

K affs/nontraditional affs/what white people call "performance teams": im good for these. i think you should generally do something - my threshold for voting negative on presumption seems to drop lower and lower the more i debate - and explanations in cross ex help particularly if you focus on epistemology/knowledge production. what does my ballot do?

T: a majority of my 1nrs my senior year of HS were on T - i think you need substantial explanation of your impacts espec. if youre going for a grounds or limits impacts - im particularly convinced by caselists for examples of topical affs. i think interp debating is more important than people give it credit for - using warrants of your evidence in comparison to the 2ac c/i will help put you ahead. not afraid to vote on stupid t interps if the aff mishandles them.

fw: since this is really what you're here to see, ill make it short. fw is an interesting tool that can be utilized strategically if read in the right debate. i think the block should spend time articulating specific abuse and why it implicates your ability to debate instead of generic blocks. i think ties to the topic are generally good. i think topical versions of the aff are something people should be going for more in the 2nr. i also think the largest reason i vote aff against fw is because the 2nr fails to extend an impact, and when they do, it's usually a terrible one. you need to contextualize and do impact calc with fw impacts the same as others - comparison and explanation.

i default to competing interps.

to quote allan xu: "i think i'm 51/49 against framework (ie i'd vote aff in a tie) but my bias is SUPER easily overcome by good debating."

DA: these are cool. i think DAs provide an opportunity for a lot of very specific and cool link stories. i think the part people suck the most at is the internal link debate - you need to explain to me why you access your impact before i can hook it up with a ballot. evidence comparison and specific link analysis helps with this.

ptx da: i used to hate these. tbh i still kinda do. i figure people are gonna read it anyway bc core neg ground and whatever. whatever.

CP: these are cool.explain specific net benefits and concrete forms of competition. a lot of these debates end up being about theory. if this is the case, read your blocks more slowly. its hard to flow theory at spreading speeds, especially if you think you're gonna go for a specific argument in a later speech.

Alexander Zhang Paradigm

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jorman antigua Paradigm


school affiliation: acorn community high school (Brooklyn NY), NYUDL (new york urban debate league), stuyversant high school (New york, NY)
years debating: 4 years of high school, starting college debate

in a debate round i have done everything from cp and politics to performance

my first highschool topic was aid to south Africa, last one was reduce military (if that matters)

I will vote on whatever arguments win, this means I may vote on anything, it could come down to Counterplan-Disad, Procedurals, Kritiks, Affs with no plan text, to even performance. tell me what your argument is and what the ballot signifies (if it has a meaning)...i.e. policy maker etc...(...)

speaker points: be persuasive and make it interesting thin line between funny and ass hole at times may it be in cross-x or your speech you decide *background music* ...analysis/argumentation (don't lie about reading a hole card if u didn't,don't just read cards and tag~line extend ~_~ ) i will call for evidence if needed and i will hit you wit the world famous "cum on son" lol


impact your arguments (duhh)

Topicality: i like a good t debate, their fun and at times educational, make sure you impact it, and give a correct abuse story...

counter plans: have a good net benefit prove how they solve the case

dis ads: you can run them i vote for anything and am familiar with most scenarios

k: i was a k db8er for the better half of my db8 career so i'm pretty familiar with most k~lit u will read unless its like some deep
nietzsche, zizek, lacan type ish but i get it...and if you explain it give a good story and show alternative solvency i will vote for it...it is also fine if you kick the alt and go for it as a case turn just debate it out...

preformance: i did this too...explain what the round comes down to...i.e. role of the judge/ballot/db8ers...and if their is a form of spill over what this is and means in real world and debate world... block framework lol...and show me why your/this performance is key...may it be a movement or just you expressing your self...i like methodology db8s so if it comes down to the aff and neg being both performance teams be clear on the framework for the round and how your methodology is better and how the other may recreate these forms of oppression you may be speaking about...may it be the deletion of identity or whiteness etc...same things apply if your running a counter~advocacy against a performance team...(*whispers* solvency)...k vs performance rounds same as methodology prove the link and as for the alt prove the solvency... framework vs performance rounds i had a lot of these, boring but fun to see the way they play out depending on interp, vio, impacts and stuff...

framework: any kind is fine...same justification as Topicality...depending on how your spinning framework within a round... *yells* education =)

theory: sure

short & sweet

#swag...have fun...do you...debate =)