NSDA Middle School Nationals

2019 — Dallas, TX/US

Rashad Ali Paradigm

I am judging Congress so my judging criteria will determine to see if Speaker

- follows Congressional Debate Rules

- is clear on Claim Vs Warrant Vs Impact

- Arguments and reasoning is clear

- Provide clear evidence especially if your opponent's ask for it

On Delivery:

- Speed for the sake of speed is big no. if I can't flow I don't follow

- Be Clear. I come from engineering background, so I am keen on logic and reasoning in your content. Present your case with clarity.

- Be respectable and have empathy. Your rebuttals should not be just attack on the opponent, you need to defend rationally. In crossfire, don't waste words in stupid arguments please show humility. Do not be rude or condescending.

- Stay focussed, summarize quickly to remove any vagueness, don't digress

Needless to state again, please follow the Congressional Debate Rule to the dot.

Good Luck

Jonie Antonio Paradigm

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Isaac Appelbaum Paradigm

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Collin Baker Paradigm

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I prioritize arguments and clash over basic speaking ability. However, I also require clarity when speaking. That means roadmaps, transitions, and no spreading. Professionality and efficiency look great, especially for Presiding Officers.

Anish Bathwal Paradigm

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Tiara Bergquist Paradigm

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Policy: This is my favorite style of debate. Please don't disappoint. Spreading is ok. Please be organized, because I like to flow the round. I will side with the negative until the affirmative proves the solvency of their plan thoroughly, burden lies on the affirmative to change the status quo, if a CP is ran, then I will decide who can prove solvency, efficacy and impact of their plan best. Be respectful, but don't be afraid to get into the debate, I like that.

Congress: I will judge based on the quality of the research, organization, overall presence in the room, and thorough understanding of the content. I like to be entertained and engaged throughout the round, so do something cool and find a way to stand out. Don't be afraid to be passionate during the round. It is convincing and that is your job.

Lincoln Douglas: Don't run a K unless you really know how to do it properly. I am fine with progressive or traditional debates. Spreading is fine. Tell me a story with your evidence, don't just read. Believe in what you are saying. Be passionate. Remember delivery should still apply in debate events. Don't bore me. Engage me. Convince me.

I will ask for you to include me on the email chain.


Sabrina Briceno Paradigm

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Trinity Brockman Paradigm

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*sean kennedy is the best lab leader. no cap.*

email: thehangingtree664@gmail.com


4th-year debater @ Manhattan High School

Everything is up for debate.

I am a heavy flow critic. I find myself looking towards the arguments and how they function in the debate over the inherent “truth” of an argument. I will vote on an argument I know is not true (many economy arguments, for example) if this is not refuted. Basically, I am tech over truth in most instances.

However, I will not vote on arguments such as racism good, patriarchy good, transphobia good, ableism good, colonialism good, etc. Give content warnings for graphic content!!! (I will vote you down and walk out IF NOT DONE) If there are any of the aforementioned violence practiced theoretically or materially in round I will vote against your team immediately. These types of injustices kill education and means that no ethical pedagogy can occur. Zero tolerance here. Debate space should be a space to act without fear of oppression - I will make sure that is reflected in my judgments and comments.

i won't vote on your shitty "colonization good" turn.

I am fine with any speed you choose, you will not go too fast for me. However, do not spread just to push the other team out. That is an accessibility issue and if they are pushed out of the round and make an abuse argument or criticism of your practices I will most likely vote against you. I see way too many debaters push other teams out just because they think they are better than the other team. Don't be a dick.

Topicality: I love it. A good T debate is my favorite debate to judge and was my favorite argument to run. T is always a voter because it taps into the performative aspects of debate and how this education can be effective. They are always about competing interpretations and the reasons as to why that interpretation is more beneficial than others. You must weigh the offense based on your standards/voters vs. the C/I and their subsequent standards/voters. You have to win your interpretation is the best for the debate. This applies to all theory arguments.

***Topicality is just an agreement between two teams on what is to be debated.*** If there is/are more pertinent issue(s) that the teams wish to discuss (e.g. anti-blackness, transphobia, colonialism, ableism) of a particular event that is proximal to the debaters then that is okay. Do not think you are stuck to the topic if there is a general consensus on what should be debated.

Counterplans: Read one, please. If you don’t, you need status quo solves. If you read a perm text, please give SOME explanation on how the perm functions. I don’t view perms as advocacies (no one does anymore) because the CP is just opportunity cost to the affirmative, so don’t act like you suddenly have an amazing new net-benefit because you permutated the CP. Presumption never flips aff. Presumption, simply put, is that the existing state of affairs, policies, programs should continue unless adequate reasons are given for change. I believe condo is good, I'm going to have a hard time listening to anything else.

*also i LOVE delay and pic's...so have some fun with that

Criticisms/Performances: I do run Ks as a debater. (I have argued neolib, cap, security, fem, gender, set col, and queer kritiks) It should be an advocacy. Additionally, I do not think white debaters should run anti-blackness. I do not think non-queer individuals should run queer theory. This runs the line of commodification and you cannot work within that position if you do not belong to it, meaning that you will never truly understand what you are running and operating form a position of privilege to do so. I am okay with whatever criticism or performance you so choose to run, just make sure you can explain it and how it solves the aff.

Case: haha you should do it, literally aff's are so bad and not well designed anymore. I could have lost on presumption so many times my senior year but people are too afraid to give that 2NR. If that is your best 2nr option, do it.


It is much more important to me that you find an educational gain from this activity and adequately express the things you care about greatly than hitting all the stock issues or being a policy maker. Debate is about the debaters, make the round what you want. ANY attempt to push the other team out of the debate will result in a dropped ballot.

fiat is fake and the debate round should be ethically and strategically centered in the contact between the bodies in the space (me and the debaters). that doesn't mean i don't buy your ptx da or shady i/l link chain, but that i want to see a politely conducted, complex debate with four people who know a lot more about what they are talking about than me. at the end of the day, we all leave the round and what we take away from it is knowledge, empathy and experience. if you prove to me that you are best for the production of those three things in this space, then it is likely you have won.

Any other questions just find me and ask.

Lillian Broughton Paradigm

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Monique Cauley Paradigm

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Sara Cavicchi Paradigm

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I'm a graduated high school this year, and competed at NCFL and NSDA in Lincoln Douglas debate.

LD- I like more traditional style of debate but won't count off if the style is not how I debate. I want to be able to hear you so don't speak too fast, but also get in all you need to say. I take intensive flows and will pick a winner based on who won the most arguments in the debate.

Congress- I have done and won in state congress, and like the speakers to be charming but still taking the session seriously. A joke or two is fine but making the whole session one is not how congress should be done. The PO should keep the chamber as under control as possible.

I'm so excited to be judging and I'm so happy that y'all are starting so early.

Good luck!

Mitchell Chapman Paradigm

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Noah Clapacs Paradigm

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Hey! I did CX, PF, LD, and Congress in high school, and I've been debating parli at UC Berkeley for the past two years. I'm willing to hear out a spectrum of argumentation, as long as it's well-researched and well-qualified. You're welcome to spread if you really think it'll do you the most good, but please flash me your case if you choose to do so. Please don't say anything racist/homophobic/transphobic because I would hate to drop a team automatically. I'll also be looking for continuity in flow and consistent clash—make things spicy!

Christie Conde Paradigm

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Caden Cox Paradigm

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The best thing to do is ask my before round so I can easily explain everything. However, for the basics, I consider myself a tab judge. You tell me how to evaluate the round, and that is what I will do. I do not want to do the work for you, so if it is not on the flow it doesn’t exist. Speech is a communication event so make sure you are clear and able to be understood. You may spread, but I must be able to understand tags and other important information. I prefer offense over defense in a debate round because defense can become wishy washy. Be respectful and courteous to your opponents.

For specific events, ask in round so I can clarify my stance on each specific nuance of debate events.

For Congress, I prefer debate that actually uses different points and refutation of the different ideas presented. I do not want to hear the same thing over and over again. A PO should make sure they are fair and transparent in everything they do so that the room moves efficiently. I want congressional debaters to respect their peers but also provide clash that moves the debate forward in a good manner.

In CX, I vote more on quality than quantity. I want to see debaters analyze cards instead of just reading. Make sure you sign post. I am ok with any argument as long as it is presented properly. If you don’t present it properly then I will not do the work for you.

Khanh-Vy Do Paradigm

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Makayne Favor Paradigm

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Nora Flynn-McIver Paradigm

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I have competed in Congressional debate on local and national circuits for three years, and I value clash and well-polished arguments. I also highly consider presiding officers when looking at rankings. If you preside well, I will likely put you in my top 8.

Glenda France Paradigm

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Juliet Geffre Paradigm

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My experience includes dong every type of debate except policy. I have gone to nationals twice for Congress and once for World Schools. I have been involved in forensics since 7th grade and I love the activity.

I just want to see a good debate on both sides. Signposting is preferred so I can follow along. Agressivnesss doesnt look good on your part but I cant stop you, so keep it friendly and nice. Good Luck to everyone

Erin Guiney Paradigm

I have experience competing, judging, and coaching both Congressional Debate and Public Forum Debate and have judged a handful of Novice LD rounds.

For Congress:

60% presentation, 40% content. There MUST be refutation in every speech after the authorship. If you speak twice on the same bill I will drop you. If you refer to male competitors as 'representative' and female competitors as 'Ms.' I will drop you. Please give me impacts.

For PF:

I'm not going to time you. I'm not going to flow CX. You will not be able to speak faster than I will be able to flow. I need impacts, please, and clear taglines. It is not my job to weigh the round for you, so you need to be doing impact calculus and giving me key voters all the way through. If you are rude in CX I will give you low speaks and I will want to drop you. Also I do not care who the authors of your cards are so if you refer to cards by the author only I am not going to know what you are talking about.

For NLD:

I'm new to this, so please speak clearly, give me impacts, and use your value and criterion throughout the round. I won't flow CX and I won't be able to keep up if you go full spread on me. Weigh impacts and condense the debate for me more and more every speech so it is clear what the main issues are.

Heba Haq Paradigm

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Carter Henman Paradigm

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TLDR: You do you. I do what you tell me.


I strive to judge like a "blank slate" while recognizing that I will never actually be one. Keep this in mind as you read the rest of this paradigm.



If there is an email chain I will want to be on it. I would be glad to answer any questions you have.


Disclose as much or as little as you want to me or anyone else in the room. Either way, I am committed to making the debate rounds I judge safe and accessible.


I competed in LD in high school (2009-2013) in Wyoming and northern Colorado with some national circuit exposure.

I competed in policy at the University of Wyoming (2013-2018) and qualified to the NDT twice. I loved reading complicated courts affirmatives, bold impact turns, and Ks with specific and nuanced justifications for why they are competitive with the aff. I wish I had had the courage to go for theory in the 2AR more often. I studied (mostly analytic) philosophy and some critical disability theory to earn my bachelor's degree.

Style: agnostic.

All debate is performative. I can be persuaded that one performance is contingently more valuable (ethically, aesthetically, educationally, etc.) than another, but it would be arbitrary and unethical on my part to categorically exclude any particular style.

That being said, I am not agnostic when it comes to form. An argument has a claim, a warrant, and an impact. I do not care how you give me those three things, but if you do not, then you have not made an argument and my RFD will probably reflect that. This cuts in many directions: I hate K overviews that make sweeping ontological claims and then describe implications for the case without explaining why the original claim might be true; I equally detest when anyone simply asserts that "uniqueness determines the direction of the link".

Organization matters. However, I do not think organization is synonymous with what a lot of people mean when they say "line by line". It means demonstrating a holistic awareness of the debate and effectively communicating how any given argument you are making interacts with your opponents'. Therefore, when adjudicating whether something is a "dropped argument" I will parse between (a) reasonably predictable and intelligibly executed cross-applications and (b) superficial line-by-line infractions. Giving conceptual labels to your arguments and using your opponents' language when addressing theirs can help you get on the right side of this distinction.

Evidence matters. A lot. Again, I do not mean what a lot of people mean when they talk about evidence in debate. It is about a lot more than cards. It is also about personal experience and preparation, historical consciousness, and even forcing your opponents to make a strategic concession (by the way, I flow cross-examination). I read cards only when I have to and tend to defer to what was said in the debate regarding how to interpret them and determine their quality. Thus, I will hold the 2NR/2AR to relatively high thresholds for explanation.

I flow on paper. This means I need pen time. It also magnifies the importance of organization since I cannot drag and drop cells on a spreadsheet. Because I flow the "internals" of evidence (cards or otherwise), you will benefit enormously from clarity if you are fast and will not necessarily be at a disadvantage against very fast teams if you are slow but efficient with your tag lines.

Substance: mostly agnostic.

Hate and disrespect are never conducive to education and growth. I presume that the need to disincentivize abusive speech and other behaviors overrides my desire to reward skill with a ballot, but it never hurts for debaters to remind me of why this is true if you are up to it. This includes card clipping and other ethics violations. In general, I will stop the round if I notice it on my own. Otherwise, you have two options: (1) stop the round, stake the debate on it (you may lose if you are wrong, but they will certainly lose and receive no speaker points if you are right), and let me be final arbiter or (2) keep the issue alive throughout the debate, but leave open the option to go for substance. I think this is the most fair way for me to address this as an educator, but please do not think option two gives you license to go for "a risk of an ethics violation" in the final rebuttals or to read a generic "clipping bad" shell in every one of your 1NC/2ACs. That's icky.

There is no right way to affirm the topic. There are wrong ways to affirm the topic. I can be sold on the notion that the aff did it the wrong way. I can also be convinced that the wrong way is better than the right way. It may yet be easiest to convince me that your counter-interpretation of the right way to affirm the topic is just as good as, or better than, theirs.

Theory is mis- and underutilized. You get to debate the very rules of your debate! Current conventions regarding negative fiat, for example, will inevitably make me smirk when you read "no neg fiat." Still, if you invest enough thought, before and during and after debates (not merely regurgitating somebody else's blocks at an unintelligible rate), into any theory argument I am going to be eager to vote on it.

Sarah Henry Paradigm

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Stevan Jechura Paradigm

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Francis Kim Paradigm

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Kaleo Lee Paradigm

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Lindsay Levine Paradigm

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Divya Lobo Paradigm

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For congressional debate, I believe structured, concise speeches are imperative for success. I focus heavily on the content of the speeches over the presentation of the speech. However, being clear and personable does help your rank.

Moral arguments have little weight unless you can directly prove that the legislation impacts it. I look for a economic or technical impact with your arguments. Focus more on the impact a source has rather than stacking your speech with a bunch of sources. Try to avoid rehash, so crystallization is greatly encouraged.

Your questions should be clear and short. Similarly, answers should be short but answer the question and further the argument.

Tim Lohrfink Paradigm

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Hailee Martin Paradigm

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Tim Martindell Paradigm

I was a speech and debate coach twenty years ago and this is the first tournament I have judged since then.

I will be expecting clear articulation and logical presentation.

i expect logical, well thought out affirmative and negative speeches. I don’t expect to hear rehashes of earlier. I will be expecting clear and precise sponsorship speeches and logical class refutation.

Meena Marwaha Paradigm

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Zain Masri Paradigm

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Trent McKenzie Paradigm

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Kayla Mercure Paradigm

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Mason Moore Paradigm

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Olga Mora Paradigm

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Ulises Ordunez Paradigm

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Sandy Parsotan Paradigm

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I am looking for clear speeches with refutations. No REHASH. Eye contact and fluency is important. Strong argumentation and good use of evidence.

Rupal Patel Paradigm

I mainly judge public forum, and occasionally policy or congress.

The following is for Public Forum. Here’s what I expect:

1. Make sure you introduce yourselves before you start.

2. I expect all debaters to know the rules and be respectful to one another.

3. Debaters should keep track of their prep time and speech times but I may monitor them and time myself.

4. Be clear and communicate effectively (No spreading please). If I can't understand you, I will assume you don't know your topic.

5. Anything dropped in the round can not be responded to later in the debate.

6. Don’t read new cards in the Final Focus.

7. Do lots of weighing in the Summary and Final Focus; you should make it clear to me who won the round, I shouldn’t have to do the weighing myself.


1. Come prepared to round with a flash drive in case the WiFi is down and you can't email your speech docs.

2. Say which argument you are responding to before you read a card, and group arguments.

3. Don't read just evidence and expect me to interpret why they were said; make it clear what each card means in the context of the debate with analysis.

4. Do what you would do in a normal policy round- don't read floating pics and unreasonable theory shells against your opponents just because they or I don't know the rules as much as you.

5. I will be reading your speech docs but it would be wise for you to read at a speed at which I can clearly understand what you're saying.

6. Divide the neg block between your partner reasonably- for example you shouldn't be going both case and off case in each speech of the block.

7. Properly flow the round and be respectful to your partner and opponents by at least acting like your listening to their speeches. This will enable you to debate line-by-line rather than just using pre-made blocks that don't necessarily address the warrant of your opponent's arguments.

Walter Paul Paradigm

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Faiza Rahman Paradigm

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I have some experience competing in this event but it is by no means my main event.

Make sure to clearly signpost and speak clearly. I prefer that you do NOT cross the line into spreading. In cross, don't be rude and don't interrupt others (unless someone is going on for longer than they should)


For POs -- Make sure you keep speech recency and precedence, otherwise you should not preside. For regular questioning, keep precedence for sure, and make sure to track recency as best as you can. I WILL be keeping track. If you keep a fair and fast round, expect to get a good rank from me.

For speakers -- After the 1st speech, try to incorporate clash as best as you possibly can. After the 1st cycle, it is REQUIRED for a good rank. I don't care too much about a a fluency break or two, but make sure to speak clearly and loudly. Crystallization speeches will look better to me near the end of the round if they're done well. Please (!!!) avoid breaking the cycle. Make sure to have fun, and the round will go by a lot faster.

Mukund Rao Paradigm

8 rounds

** PF Paradigm**

I debated and did alright. This should be generally listed in order of what I see as important. Email for speech docs/questions you have later is mukundrao9 at gmail

Short stuff

  1. Tech > truth. Exceptions are obvious. Don’t be a terrible person.

  2. Turns must be frontlined in 2nd rebuttal. Turns must be extended in 1st summary. If defense is frontlined in 2nd rebuttal then it also has to be extended in 1st summary.

  3. Please Weigh. I won’t listen to new weighing in 2nd ff unless there’s no other weighing in the round.

  4. Please signpost. I expect you to go line by line in every speech. If narrative debate is your thing then please tell me where to flow stuff

  5. I am not perfect. sorry if I screw up


  • Pull up evidence quickly.

1st summary/final focus

  • 1st summary needs to extend all turns you want me to vote off of.

  • 1st summary needs to extend defense if your opponents frontline it in 2nd rebuttal.

  • 1st summary doesn’t need to weigh.

  • If you’re conceding defense to get out of a turn, it needs to be done in 1st summary.

2nd rebuttal/summary/final focus

  • 2nd rebuttal has to respond to all the turns on your case.

  • If you’re conceding defense to get out of turns, that needs to be done in 2nd rebuttal.

  • No new evidence to frontline in 2nd summary. Read it in rebuttal.

  • Your “turns” in rebuttal have to actually turn their case. Please don’t read independent offense in front of me.

  • 2nd summary needs to extend everything you’re going for.

  • I’ll drop speaks for new args in 2nd ff.


  • Extend arguments not authors. If I don’t have well warranted arguments in summary and final focus, I won’t vote for them.

  • My threshold for extensions of conceded arguments is pretty low.

  • Extending author names will make me happy but it’s not necessary.


  • If you disclosed, tell me before the round. I’ll give you +.5 speaker points.

  • I won’t hack for disclosure theory. You still have to win the arg.
  • Don’t run disclosure theory in a round where you know you’ll win anyways.


  • I have a pretty high threshold on theory. I’ll probably vote for anything but I might not be happy about that and your speaks might reflect it.

  • Your best bet is to ask before the round if I’ll be receptive to a certain shell.

  • If you run theory on novices, I will tank your speaks.

  • Default is no RVI, but I think in pf it’s really easy to win an RVI so don’t be afraid to go for it.

Other Progressive Args

  • I’m a fan, but I don’t really know how to evaluate these args. You’ll probably have to do more work on framing in front of me than you would for some other judges.


  • I’m a pretty new judge. I can keep up with pf speed, but if you go fast you are taking a risk that I miss something. I will clear you if I can’t understand you and your opponents can do the same.

  • If I don’t understand an argument the first time you read it, I will not vote off of it.

  • Send speech docs if you’re going fast.

  • If you go really fast on paraphrased evidence, I won’t be happy.


  • I won’t listen to new weighing in 2nd final focus unless there isn’t any weighing earlier in the round.


  • Don’t be rude. Talking over your opponent will not impress me. If I think you’re being condescending I will seriously tank your speaks.


  • Take speaker points with a grain of salt. Low speaker points does not mean you’re a bad debater. It’s one judge’s opinion about how you performed in one round.

  • My speaks are based off of general strategy. They’re not based off of speaking skills or presentation (except if you’re mean)


  • Pointing out an argument doesn’t have a warrant is terminal defense. I’ll be less likely to disregard an unwarranted argument unless you point it out. Don’t take that chance.

  • Explain why non-responsive arguments are non-responsive.
  • If you have any questions before the round, don’t be afraid to ask.

  • If there’s anything I can do to make the round better for you, please tell me.

  • Pause when you switch flows please!!

  • Clarity of impact is not a weighing mechanism.

Neil Schleifer Paradigm

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Jana Shih Paradigm

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Tanya Singh Paradigm

For Congressional Debate, I believe speech structure is very important with speaking, and I also believe that being a clear, concise speaker is integral for competitive success.

In session, I value clash and non-repetition. Especially refuting the points of specific representatives and showing how your point and theirs fundamentally differ. If I hear a speech that repeats everything that has already been said in the debate and adds nothing new, along with avoiding direct clash, I will vote down, regardless of how brilliant of a speaker you might be.

I believe that with this structure you must give a thesis in which you "preview" your points before actually going on to give your speech, otherwise, it becomes unclear as to what you are going to say and becomes harder to judge/examine clash.

With argumentation, you must present a claim and a CLEAR warrant to support the aforementioned claim. Don't assume that everyone in the room knows what your statistics mean, explain to them if necessary, but make it short and sweet.

There also needs to be a real-world impact for your argument, nothing you say actually matters if you don't explain how this will change global geopolitics or demographics for better/worse. Then, you are just saying things to say them.

In the cross-examination/questioning period, don't let the questioner ramble on with a half-coherent question for fifteen seconds or longwindedly give an answer that lasts for twenty. This is where I especially value being clear and concise.

I will be especially tough on the PO, parliamentary procedure can be arduous and difficult so I will be lenient on that, but being fair and kind to the representatives in the chamber is important, as you have been given the duty by your peers. Respect goes BOTH ways.

I value sportsmanship very highly. Do not be rude to the other representatives in your chamber or subordinate them to yourself. Do not be bigoted or disrespectful. We are here to have an intellectual debate and it would be inappropriate for it to devolve into disorganized chaos where nobody is treating each other correctly.


With Policy Debate, I am slightly more lenient on speech style and I find myself fixating on the validity of arguments and the analysis of arguments being made. This does not mean I will vote up speakers who are sloppy and unstructured, because I will not. Speed is not an issue for me, you will not be speaking too fast for me at any time, as long as you signpost and slow down on your tags, so I can flow. As long as you can speak quickly and with clarity, I will be fine with speed.

I will tell you that I have only done one year of policy debate (with great competitive success in the KDC and JV divisions).

In the event that someone doesn't speak clearly, I will clear them. I will clear a competitor exactly twice before putting down my flow and tuning out for the rest of the speech. I will also vote down for a lack of clarity in speeches.

For Disadvantages and Kritiks, they should have an aff-specific link (but I will be lenient on this rule in the case that an aff is small/niche-y).

DAs: I really really dislike the usage of generic links because they tend to be weak and are not really applicable to all affirmative cases under the resolution. I prefer politics disads to anything else, I think they're the strongest type of disadvantage, but that doesn't mean I'm going to flip out if you run some other form of disadvantage. The disadvantage is easily my favorite argument that can be made on the neg. I debated a lot in the KDC division (classical style debate) in which disadvantages are predominantly used as neg offense. Make sure the disadvantage is unique and has a strong link chain leading to the impact. I strongly dislike disadvantages with a nonsensical link chain or have an impact of nuke war/global pandemic from 2010, because the timeframe for that has OBVIOUSLY elapsed. I prefer more real-world impacts of structural violence, racism, discrimination-based violence.

Ks: I'm not gonna pretend I'm some sort of K Hack or something, I've only read Neolib and Fem K in round, but I have read some other K lit with some level of understanding. I also dislike generic link arguments with kritiks, despite liking them as an argument being made on the neg- I believe there's a lot of merits to the Kritik. Make sure that your alt guarantees solvency and tell me why we should prefer the world of the alt to the world of the aff. Tell me WHY the world of the aff is bad and how the aff leads to your impact/impacts. You should able to refute arguments made on the Kritik. I prefer epistemology to ontology in Kritikal debates. For the Kritik I'm open to more impacts than I would be with a disadvantage, especially with the nature of a kritik, but I prefer impacts of societal/ecological collapse, worsening of status quo, etc.

Topicality: I like topicality, but not as much as disadvantages and kritiks. If it gets to the point that the 2NC is 8 minutes of Topicality, you better do a good job analyzing the T debate. I will vote for T if it is the main voter/argument present in round, otherwise I will vote for other arguments being made. If the aff provides a counterinterpretation, tell me why I should prefer your interpretation to theirs. I am not too huge on debating credibility (in general) of sources as opposed to the actual warrants of the definition. Otherwise with crebility on T, my hierarchy for credible sources is pretty simple:

1. Supreme Court Rulings

2. Governmental Organizations

3. Experts on the Topic

4. Mainstream Media

5. Dictionaries

for voters on topicality, I prefer education based voters. I don't really want to hear anything else as a voter because at the end of the day, education gained/lost should matter more than anything else in the round.

Counterplans: I'm not a huge fan of them, because solvency usually doesn't match with the counterplan text in its entirety, but I am not completely closed off to the idea of them. They are just my least favorite argument used for neg offense.

PICS and PiKs: Prove PICS are abusive if they are run. You could do a PiK in one sentence (please slow down for it) and I would still count it as an argument that must be responded to.

K Affs: I'm mostly unfamiliar with K Affs, I've read some K Affs on Open Evidence, but I don't entirely grasp or prefer the structure of K Affs.

Theory: I like debating on debate theory, especially when used to prove abuse/no abuse in the round. But I dislike hearing the same, stale blocks that anyone can get from Open Evidence.

Framing: I love hearing debates on framing and seeing affs that provide framing because they give me a lens to look through the round with instead of forcing me to rely on my own, biased lens. Framing is quite important to me because in most rounds it can determine a win/loss by telling me what to prioritize in the round. When both aff and neg provide frameworks, I must be given a reason to prefer one framework over the other.


* I hate arguments saying racism good, sexism good, poverty good, etc. I will vote you down for running them.

* I get triggered by descriptive narratives of rape, domestic violence/sexual violence, suicide, and mental illness. These can be briefly mentioned in round, but if you fail to provide a content warning and read such narratives, I will leave the round for that speech.

*Be fair to your opponent and show good sportsmanship. Don't be rude/condescending to them and respect them, their pronouns and triggers. Don't run arguments that invalidate an opponent's identity intentionally.

*Don't be abusive and run shallow arguments as a time skew that kill education in the round. I think it's fundamental that we be equitable to each other and make sure that everyone leaves the round with as much education as they can possibly gain from the round.

*Flash quickly when using flashdrives, I would prefer a copy as well for flowing purposes and so I can read the cards and understand the warrant behind them better through reading them.

Liam Singleton Paradigm

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I debated for Millard South for 3 years. I mainly debated in Congress, and went to several national circuit debates and went to NSDA Nationals for Congress. I also have experience on every form of debate. (PF, LD, Policy, and Congress.) Although I am most familiar with Congress, and PF.

I've been judging PF and Congress all year this year as well.

Lincoln Douglas:

I will almost never, ever judge Lincoln Douglas. I have no idea what I'm doing, I despise philosophy, and if I judge you I'm so sorry.

Public Forum:

I will typically flow almost everything that I can. But you still need to explain all of your impacts to me in the Summary and Final Focus. (I also will normally time for myself. But I will not tell you when your time is up, that is up to you. Once the time is up, I will just stop flowing.)

I pay attention to a lot of things during the debate, and especially the little things. I don't normally like to use the word abusive, but if I notice that in questioning you're not allowing your opponents to ask questions. I will most likely address it, and take some speaker points off.

I will rarely deem things as inappropriate. Look at General Section.

On the topic of speed. I don't mind going at a moderately fast pace. But if you start spreading. I will just stop flowing.

If you want to spread, you must give your case to both me, and your opponents so ensure fairness. Vice versa for your opponents.

I will also typically expect you to take all of your time, both for your speeches and for your prep time. You have the time to make arguments, so make them. It will only help you.


I am very knowledgeable about Congress. I know the rules, how a round should look, and how everyone should be acting.

Rehash is my least favorite part about Congress. Please do not rehash. (Rehash is saying the same argument as someone who had previously already said the same thing, and not adding anything new to the debate.) Now, on that. If you do have a point someone has said before, but new information they didn't say. Then that's not rehash.

Just make sure you are always adding more to the debate, but on that note. Do not bring up new information in questioning. This is both rude and abusive towards your opponents because you are asking them questions about evidence they do not have. If the information has been given in a speech before, then it is fine. But beyond that, in NSDA rules, it is not allowed.

Also, I prefer quality over quantity. If you give one or two amazing speeches during the whole day, while someone else gave 4 or 5 sub par speeches. I will most likely favor you. I also like people who use up their whole time, and don't abuse the grace period. (That is the 10 seconds most PO's giver after the three minute allotted time.)

I also like extemp speaking. Now I don't mean you can't have any prep. I'm just saying, have good eye contact with everyone in the room. (Mainly just looking around the room. You're trying to convince everyone else in the room to join your side, not the judges.)

On the topic of decorum. Decorum is one of the largest parts of Congress. (Decorum is like general professionalism in the round.) Always make sure you are being professional in the round.

Congress Presiding Officer:

I typically rank the PO, but only for specific qualifications.

1. Make sure you are keeping up with Precedence and Recency, as well as call on the correct people so the round is fair for everyone.

2. Make sure your not being biased. I understand giving your friend or teammate a speech fast, but after precedence and recency has been set for both speeches and questioning. It should be based off of that.

3. Finally, making you sure you keep the round together and running smooth. If it's a rowdy house then I understand if you can't. But if you do manage to keep it all together, especially in a rowdy house. Kudos to you.


Please just be respectful to your peers. This is an activity that is meant to be fun. Don't be rude to people.

I understand people have different views, but it doesn't take that much effort to just be kind of people.

Also, please don't speak while your opponents are talking. (Mainly just asking/answering questions, or giving speeches.)

I understand for PF, and Policy. But Congress, it's especially rude.

On the topic of Anecdotal evidence. I personally like anecdotal evidence, but don't leave it by itself. If you want to link it to yourself, go for it. But give empirical evidence to support your claim so it doesn't sound like your a stand alone case. It will also make you sound more credible as a speaker.

On that, CLAIM < WARRANT < IMPACT. Every time you make a claim, give evidence to support your claim, and give the impact of your claim with your warrant. If you don't give a warrant, it makes it sound like a personal opinion.

Cole Skinner Paradigm

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Malachi Smith Paradigm

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Trey Smith Paradigm

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I generally judge congress and have more experience there but I have some expectations for how PF should go.

I'm open to speed though do believe PF is more of the Lay Man's debate and that your job is to be persuasive and understandable to all in the room I might not be able to catch everything in the round if you're going as fast as humanly possible and thus won't be able to flow everything said.

In arguments, I'm open to most anything BUT it must be explained very clearly so that there is zero confusion among anyone in the room. I believe that the second rebuttal needs to address both sides of the flow and that weighing should be done for me keeping with main points in summaries/ff

Do not paraphrase evidence. There shouldn't be any time you are saying anything claiming it is what the evidence says where it isn't. If you feel like you need to paraphrase explain the evidence more afterwards or be able to adapt your arguments to what the authors actually mean.

Chakara Smith Paradigm

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Toby Sowell Paradigm

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Alex Wakefield Paradigm

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Ruby Wang Paradigm

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William Warren Paradigm

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Rebecca Whitehead Paradigm

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Betty Whitlock Paradigm

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Sophia Won Paradigm

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Jack Xiao Paradigm

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jeffrey fuchs Paradigm

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Speak Slow so I can understand you but not so slow that you can't fit 3 points in the argument

Value good questions that further the debate, furthermore, if you ask a question please bring it up in your debate

Clash is great

Congress should be filled with logical debates, not anecdotes

jo rohde Paradigm

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