Villiger 39 St Josephs University

2018 — PA/US

Jennifer Adams Paradigm

First and foremost, I am looking for clear contentions and well argued impacts with a clear and obvious structure. While presentation is not the deciding factor, it does affect how persuasive your arguments ultimately are. That being said, whichever side that conveys the best evidence and best rebuts their opponents will win.

Still, as a judge, clarity is important. Competitors have a tendency to believe that if they speak more and very fast then their arguments will be better and they will win the debate. However, this might instead muddle your points and rationale and end up hurting your arguments. It must be stressed that clear arguments coupled with empirical evidence wins debates not shouting out as many sources, reasons, and data as possible.

Finally, understanding and properly refuting the other side's argument is pivotal. The debate should not just be which side has the most evidence, but also which side can best defend their evidence and arguments.

Jack Bibbiano Paradigm

8 rounds

I did Public Forum in high school and now I am a student UPenn.

I only weigh offense in the final focus if it was brought up in the summary speech. Explain your warrants and extend some defense. Impact analysis, weighing through framework, and turns are ways to win my ballot.

Tori Bolase Paradigm

8 rounds

TL;DR: Flow judge. Speed is fine but please do a lot of weighing in summary and final focus regardless of how quickly you speak.

Long Version:

I am a sophomore at the University of Pennsylvania and I am currently studying Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. In high school, I did Public Forum on the local, state, and national circuits. I currently debate for Penn's premier competitive debate team on the APDA circuit (parliamentary) and I compete regularly.

I have a preference for arguments that have realistic and probabilistic impacts. That is to say, if you are impacting to nuclear war or some shit like that, you really have to show a strong link chain. I will still weigh low probability impacts in the round but unless you make the links and warrants obvious, it isn't clear why I should care too much if there isn't much evidence that it will happen.

Also, I would really like to see any arguments that you talk about in final focus to be in your summary. I am a pretty flow judge, and I like to see coverage of all points in rebuttal. However, I'm not going to drop you because you don't address one blippy card in constructive. I'm pretty flow and ok with speed so go as fast as you think is appropriate for Public Forum.

Also, please don't be a dick.

I'm serious. I will hand out really low speaker points if you are condescending or dismissive of any debaters, especially in cross. don't be afraid to be aggressive or passionate, but please refrain from communicating in a manner that would make others feel unwelcome. I want to discourage bad debate norms, so I will reduce speaks if I feel the need to.

On that note, I tend to give speaks between 27-29 for varsity debaters. If I don't give you something in that range, I will usually tell you why in my RFD. I try to give feedback that is helpful and constructive; I was a novice trainer at my high school for two years so I hope my RFD is something you can learn from regardless of whether or not you win. Please don't postround me. :)

Andrew Ceonzo Paradigm

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James Coburn Paradigm

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Tess Donohue Paradigm

Public Forum was devised to convince the average person on the street. I’m that person. Speak clearly at a normal speed and I’ll be able to make a reasoned decision. You are all great kids. Have fun!

Jonathan Freedman Paradigm

My name is Jonathan Freedman. I am a lawyer, and while I did not debate in high school, I have been judging Varsity Public Forum for two years, and JV Public Forum for two years prior to that. If I can't understand you, I can't flow for you, so please speak slowly, clearly and loudly. No spreading, please. I judge tech over truth, so I won't argue for you. It helps me to flow your speech if you give me an off time roadmap, so please do so. If you have any questions, ask me before the round starts.

I know things like theory and kritiks are starting to show up in PF, but I am probably not the right judge for that kind of argument. I will only vote on the substance of the resolution.

Carlos Freyre Paradigm

Hello! I did Debate for 4 years at Western Highschool and I consider myself a classic flow judge. Here are my ground rules.

For LD specifically,

I believe that debate is a game and that it should be played however you want it to be. I'll accept any argument as long as it's not obviously sexist/racist/or homophobic. Just be comfortable!

PF wise,

1. If you make me laugh you get a 30.

2. First Sum does not need defense, the second Sum, however, does. There is one caveat to this rule and it is if the second rebuttal decides to frontline, then I think it would be advantageous to frontline back.

3. Don't be rude in cross and if you are please mop them. Additionally, I dislike snarkiness outside of crosses especially, you will be really docked on speaks if you do this.

4. Don't power-tag/read fake evidence, I will most likely call for it and if I have been judging enough on a topic and know your card is entirely fake, you'll suffer for it.

5. Don't spread or read theory/K's unless there is actual abuse/problem with the topic.

6. Every Speach past constructive needs to give me a clear off-time roadmap.

7. Generally, I am tech over truth, however, if you read something completely ridiculous you have to have either amazing frontlines or they'd have to completely screw up their responses.

8. I am good with flex prep as long as it's not done abusively and both teams agree.

9. You can't kick turns by accepting a non-unique in final focus and if you do it in any speech you've gotta apply their non-unique to the turns.

10. Keep each others prep in check.

Deepak Gada Paradigm

I am a parent judge. This is my 1st year of judging Public Forum. I value clear arguments and well structured cases. I prefer debater to be slower and clear in explaining their cases.

Shaojing Guo Paradigm

I am a parent judge and I have judged on national circuit for three years.

General Preferences

Please keep track of speech and prep time yourself.

Please don't spread. Keep the word count less than 190 words per minute will be great.

I like arguments that are logical and explained clearly.

Be civil and respond logically. Don't be over-aggressive.

Bobby Hausen Paradigm

I look for clear, logical, and well-supported arguments. Signposting and a conversational pace of speed are important. I also look for a debater to actually engage his or her opponent's arguments, not just to reiterate their own points that were made in their initial case.

I do not like speed, spreading, excessive jargon, critiques, or other unconventional arguments.

Susan Hayes Paradigm

I am tabula rasa. Speed is fine.Open CX OK, open rebuttal NOT OK. Will vote on T only if it is clearly untopical- FXT is of more interest. OK with K but Alts need to be actionable. 

Tori Hoffner Paradigm

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Ramesh Karri Paradigm

I am a parent judge from Hunter College High School. I have been judging for a few years now. Please speak slowly and clearly, no jargon. You should concentrate on the 1-2 most relevant arguments at the end of the round and point out to me why I should vote on those. If you want to win off of an argument, please highlight it in the summary and reiterate it in the final focus speeches. Please be civil to your competitors.

Hari Kumar Paradigm

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Brandon Lu Paradigm


I believe that fiat is illusory. Why do we debate the hypothetical implementation of topical government action? What does the better debating mean? Convince me why your method does something good. My favorite kind of debate is clash of civs.

Please bring food.

If you don't extend I will vote neg on presumption unless it's LD where I'll vote aff on presumption.

If for some unfortunate (for all of us) reason I'm judging parli, treat me like I don't know what's going on. I've done APDA before but it's pretty different from HS and MS parli.

My name isn't judge.


I debated 4 years of PF for Ridge in high school and I currently do policy for NYU. I will try to adapt as best as possible to debaters but sometimes I might not be able to so please ask questions on anything you're unsure about.

Contact info: Facebook (my name) or email ( Please add me to the email chain if it exists.

Please ask me if you have any questions about my RFD. Sometimes, I'm not the most thorough on the ballot or during my RFD because I'm lazy and forgetful.

PF Paradigm

I am the master of the bid round

I can handle speed but please keep things under 350 words per minute. Slow down on tags and author names and try not to paraphrase evidence if you're actually going to spread. If you go faster, you need to give me a speech doc or I will probably miss anything blippy which is not good. I will shout "clear" if I don't understand what you are saying. If you don't slow down, I won't be able to flow your arguments and you will likely lose.

Going heavy for the line by line is fine, but you must signpost or I will literally have an empty flow and won't know what to do. A good example of not signposting is the 2018 NSDA PF final. With that being said, the final focus should spend at least 30 seconds on the narrative/big picture. 2 minutes of line by line is a bit hard for me to judge and find things to vote off of if done poorly. The reverse is also true- the line by line is very important and should appear in every single speech. Losing the line by line probably makes it harder for me to vote for you. When going for the line by line, you must explain the implications for winning each part of the line by line. This comes from impacting your responses/evidence/analytics. I've seen some teams that aren't extending full arguments in summary and just frontlining responses. Extensions in all speeches need to extend a full argument or I will feel really bad voting on it.

Summary should not be the first time I see responses to case arguments and summary should respond to rebuttal arguments.

I'm currently split on whether 2nd rebuttal must frontline. I'll default to no unless someone in the round tells me I should and you can debate it out. Any net benefit will make me believe yes -this means you can all have a theory debate and if someone persuades me to always think yes, I'll give 30 speaks. If someone reads new off case arguments in 2nd rebuttal, read theory on it.

Since summaries are longer now, I think defense should be extended in summary. Any defense you want me to vote off should be in final focus even if they never touch it. I'll significantly dock points if I have to vote on arguments where both sides dropped defense. Turns you want me to vote on must be in summary.

In order for me to vote on arguments, I need to understand them so you need to explain them to me instead of blipping something and complaining that I screwed you by not voting off it. If I don't understand an argument until the middle of my rfd, it's probably on you. If something is important enough for me to vote off, you should spend more than 10 seconds on it in summary and final focus (exceptions are obvious game over moments).

How to win my ballot:

Win a link and impact that can outweigh your opponents' impacts. Weighing is important to keep me from thinking that everything is a wash and vote off presumption. I used to think weighing was really important, but most debates I've judged have not been weighing debates. If you can recognize this and drop weighing, I'll prob reward you with extra speaks. It's very rare that I actually vote off weighing because the most important part of the round is usually the link level.

I will vote off any argument that is properly warranted and impacted. I am truth before tech in terms of evidence and arguments that cause offense to people, but I will evaluate tech first everywhere else. Other arguments I will be truth over tech about will be stated at the top of my paradigm every topic (those are arguments I hate with a passion and will likely never vote off of).

I will only vote off defense if you give me a reason to and I will presume a side if you give me a reason to (normally I presume neg). I will also adapt my paradigm if arguments are made in the round about it (I can and will be lay if you want).

I evaluate framework first, then impacts on the framework, then links to the impacts, then other impacts, then defense. Strength of link is a very important weighing mechanism for me. Teams should use this to differentiate their arguments from their opponents'. If there are no impacts left I will default to the status quo. I highly enjoy voting this way, so if you don't want to lose because of this, you need to not drop terminal defense or your case. I will reward high speaks for a strategy that takes advantage of that if it works.

I will be forced to intervene if the debaters don't give me a way to evaluate the round as stated above. In egregious circumstances, I will flip a coin. I reserve the right to vote off eye contact.

Things I like:

Debating the line by line well.

Good warranting on nonstock arguments. I enjoy hearing unique arguments.

Clash. Opposing arguments need to be responded to.

Good extensions (please don't drop warrants or impacts during extensions. Voting off a nonextended warrant or impact is intervention).

Smart strategies that save time and allow you to win easily will make me award high speaks (laziness is rewarded if you can pull it off, like a 5-second summary if you are clearly winning). Debaters who already won by summary can do nothing for the rest of the round.

A good K that is explained well in the span of a PF round will make me very happy (high speaks 29+). If you read a K with a good link, impact, and alt, I will vote off of it.

Things I dislike: You will be able to tell if I'm annoyed by my expressions and gestures. These probably won't lose you the round but will make me dock speaks.

Case to final focus extensions- I will refuse to evaluate them whatsoever and I will dock speaks.

Excessively long roadmaps- Your order should just be the flows. At most the arguments. Weighing is not a flow

Frivolous theory- I will evaluate it but it's annoying and not nice. The more frivolous your theory is, the less speaks I will give and the lower threshold I give for responses.

Being obnoxious and mean in crossfire.

Double drop theory (Tab won't let me drop both debaters).

Obvious and excessive trolling. Trolling too hard will get you dropped with very low speaks and an angry ballot. Tacit trolling, though, will make a round fun.

Saying game over when it's not or on the wrong part of the flow. You need to be correct when you say it or at least be on the correct part of the flow. Being correct when you say game over will be awarded with higher speaks.

Things I hate:

New arguments in final focus (especially 2nd). If you aren't winning overwhelmingly I will drop you immediately with 26 speaks.

Paraphrasing evidence in case- I don't like it but teams seem to do it anyway no matter what I do so I can't really do anything about it, but please don't. It's bad for debate.

Making up or severely miscutting evidence. I have a habit of calling sketchy cards after round or looking up a sketchy fact.

How I award speaks:

30- One of the best debaters in the tournament, if you don't break you probably got screwed over.

29-29.9- You are a good debater. You go for the correct strategies and make me want to pick you up. I think you will almost definitely break.

28-28.9- You are above average. You do something to make me want to vote for you but you could do better.

27-27.9- You are below average. I think you can still break but probably won't go too far.

26-26.9- You did something to annoy me such as ignore my paradigm.

Below 26- You did something offensive or broke a rule (this includes racism, ableism, and sexism)

30 speaks theory: if you're reading this instead of a K to get 30 speaks in front of me, it won't work. I would much rather see a K of debate if you're trying to be an activist in round.

Miscellaneous things:

Please read dates and author qualifications. I will evaluate date theory. Quals are useful to know.

I will evaluate official evidence challenges. People really should do this more.

Theory- Frivolous theory is boring and annoying but I'll evaluate it. I default to reasonability. This is to prevent extremely frivolous theory. On T, I default to competing interpretations. When making topicality arguments, debaters need standards or net benefits for their interpretation. T and theory should be in shell format because it makes arguing and evaluating it much easier for everyone. Theory and T also need implications. I default to drop the arg for theory and drop the team for T.

I will adjudicate a TKO if someone decides to go for it. If you believe at any point in the debate that you've won beyond a reasonable doubt (dropped terminal d overview, dropped prereq case arg, theory, k, irreparable strategic error), you can stop the round and ask me to evaluate it. If you are right, you win with 30s; if you are wrong, you lose with 28s. Many rounds I've judged were over in first summary. It's usually very obvious if you are able to call a TKO.

If you disclose to your opponents and me before the round, I'll boost your speaks by 1. If you're going to send speech docs to me and your opponents, I'll also boost your speaks by another 1.

You can request my flow after the round. By doing so, you are releasing me of any liability regarding what's written on it.

If you convince me to change my paradigm after judging you, I will give you 30 speaks.

I won't be annoyed if you postround me, but I will probably complain about it to other people if you say something funny.

If you can make a reference to song I like, I'll boost your speaks. If you make a reference to a song I don't like, I'll dock speaks.

Write down things you did to boost speaks and remind me right when the round ends. If I forget, you can remind me the next time I judge you and I'll give you the extra speaks I owe.

Check out some of my debate experience on

TL:DR- do whatever you want. I'm tabula rasa enough that if you make the argument for it, I'll evaluate anything, including not at all. You can override my entire paradigm with enough justification. Ask me about what's not on here.

LD Paradigm

Please put me on the email chain. Best with Larp, then K. Bad with tricks/phil.

I'm not familiar with most philosophy. Phil rounds scare me and will make me vote in a way that will make debaters unhappy.

K: I like Ks. I need to know what the alt actually does and if that is explained well, I will easily vote off the K.

K affs: I like these, they make debate interesting.

Tricks: I'll still vote off tricks but I'm pretty bad at evaluating these debates.

Performance: As long as I know what the aff does, I'll be fine. If I don't know what the aff does or says by the end of the 1AC, I'll be a little annoyed.

Theory: I have no problems with frivolous theory. Please slow down for analytics. I can't type as fast as you speak.

I assign speaks the same way as listed on my PF paradigm.

Policy Paradigm

I'm good with any kind of argumentation. I've read policy and k affs and have read a mix of stuff on Neg. Please slow down on tags, interps, and plan texts.

Tech over truth but I like reading evidence so if the evidence is really bad, I might dock speaks. Rehighlightings are fun.

I really like good case debates. A lot of 1ACs do not have very good link stories and can easily be taken out by smart analytics. Cases with tricky advantages that don't have these problems will work well in front of me. If you win with 8 mins of case in the 1NC, I'll give 30 speaks.

DAs: I'm willing to vote on any DA scenario that has uniqueness, link, and impact. Unique case specific DAs will go very well in front of me. I do believe in zero risk and I'm more receptive to defense than most judges (applies to case defense too).

CPs: I'm pretty much ok with any kind of CP. I will evaluate and may vote on CP theory, but I usually lean neg- existence of literature is probably important. CPs must be competitive. I default to judge kicking if it makes my decision easier.

Ks: You must explain your K in a way that I will understand. Don't just keep reading cards in the block- explain the K and how it interacts with the Aff and what the alt does and how it solves. If I understand the way it works, I'm more than willing to vote off it. If you're reading 1 off K, it's probably a good idea to have a decent amount of responses on case that are both critical and policy. I'm the least familiar with high theory so I need more explanations than usual.

K affs: Not really a preference for plan text or no plan text. Good 2ACs need to explain to me why I should vote aff, what my ballot does, and respond to the line by line on the case page (you're obviously more prepared than them for the case debate so don't let it go to waste). Against framework, reading counterinterps that are specific could solve for a lot of their impacts. Presumption arguments are probably a decent response in the 1NC especially if the aff is vague or confusing.

Framework: Reading fw against a K aff works as long as you win the flow. Most of the time, I lean aff on Fw debates, but that's because neg teams think that they can get away with explaining things less than aff teams (tell me specifically why your model is better, examples are probably good). The impacts on framework and the line by line are the most important and I'll vote for whoever wins the tech. I've found that fairness is less important than most debaters think. Limits is probably not an impact. 1NC shells can get out of a lot of impact turn offense by reading a more specific shell instead of T-USFG. The easiest way the negative can win is accessing impacts that turn the case which probably also solve for the impact turns. I've found that I really enjoy clash debates (I've read K affs against framework and gone for framework against K affs).

T: For some reason, I'm a masochist and I like T debates. Teams read reasonability without telling me what it means and I don't know what to do with it.

Condo: Probably a good thing but how it's debated is most important. If the block is light on condo (or theory in general), it's probably a good idea to extend it in the 1AR to see if the 2NR drops it.

Lillian Lyons Paradigm

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Elizabeth MacEnulty Paradigm

Hi everyone,

I am a history teacher from Bronx Science, and I have limited experience judging Novice/JV PF and LD. I have judged policy debate before, but am a lay judge.

Since, I am a lay judge, this means NO SPREADING!

I am not familiar with progressive arguments, such as Ks, complex frameworks and philosophies, CP’s, DA’s, theory/T, or anything else of the sort. If you still want run it, please explain the concept as clear as possible.

This is my first tournament on this topic, so please explain your arguments clearly. If I do not understand your arguments, that will impact how i evaluate the round.

Give a clear overview, sign post well, make clear extensions with tags and author names, and do not use jargon!

Please keep CX respectful and I will not tolerate any form of bigotry or -isms.

Christopher Maravilla Paradigm

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Ryan McEvoy Paradigm

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Bonnie McKelvie Paradigm

Don't be rude. Be conscious of how you talk to people during the round (including your opponents, your partner, and me). I probably won't flow cross, but that doesn't mean I won't write a note if something important comes up or you curse out your opponent. There's no need to speed through important parts of your argument. I'm going to flow, but if you rely only on technical skills you're probably not going to get high speaks.

You need to have links and impacts. If you don't have links, it's probably just a claim that I can't trust. If you don't have impacts, I probably won't have a reason to care.

Weigh or get smacked.

Ask me any questions before the round.

Amisha Mehta Paradigm

I am a lawyer, Co-Director of the Westfield Debate Team and Co-Chair of the NYCUDL Board.

I have judged PF for the last 2 years, over 75 rounds.

I will judge based on a combination of the flow, general logic and common sense.

Speed-don't do it. If I can't understand you, I can't give you credit for it.

If you want me to vote on an issue please include it in both summary and final focus.

Write my RFD for me in final focus.

Only call for evidence if there is a real need (context, integrity).

In general, be nice. I believe in debate access for all so I will cut your speaks if you create an environment where other people don't want to participate in the activity.

Good luck and have fun!

Jeremy Metz Paradigm

Flow judge who appreciates civility, especially in cross, which should be used for asking and answering questions, not speech making. Generally, a question may be followed by a follow-up, after which it is the turn of the other side. Starting the first constructives with key definitional and framework arguments is a good idea, as is providing, in FF, your view on how the impacts should be weighed. Try to terminalize your impacts in terms of values, including human life, equity, the environment, etc. Debaters should keep their own time only, and provide their account of how much prep time remains after each instance in which they take some and reconcile it with me if I have a discrepancy. Evidence should be represented with scrupulous accuracy, and the source should be fully identified, including the credentials of the writer, the date, and the publication. If I call for a card and observe that the evidence is old and you didn't give a date, I'll be concerned. Likewise, if you use evidence in a way that's misleading, I won't be pleased, e.g. if you use it to make a general claim when it's talking about a specific instance that bears little relation to the contention it's being used to support. Evidentiary challenges should be presented to me immediately after the final speech. Stylistically, debaters should speak clearly and audibly, while avoiding shouting. Speed will always be an issue, and debaters are urged to pace themselves mindfully of their opponents and judge(s).

Policy Update

Please see the above, as applicable, especially as regards civility. I prefer that issues of framework, topicality, definition, and interpretation be dealt with up front. Creativity is fine, but it must be firmly grounded in the reasonable. New arguments should not be presented in the rebuttal speeches, although there's always a judgment call when they're coming in as blocks. Clash is good; clash nullification is problematic. Plans should be substantive and intended to further policy objectives, not trivial and intended simply to confound the opposition.

Tina Moon-Lee Paradigm

Although I “flow” arguments on a flow pad, please note that I am not a technical judge which provides points here and there and tries to determine which arguments were “carried” to the end of the round or which ones were “dropped”. Instead, I flow to help me keep track of the arguments that are made by both sides and the critical analysis that is conveyed to me to support or refute arguments. Please use the crossfires to ask each other questions and speak to each other, rather than addressing me and asking me to take note of certain statements (which can and should be done during summary and final focus). Consider the final focus as the points I should consider in my reason for judgement write up.

Please weigh, as I find this to be critical to my analysis.

Use "cards" only to support your analysis, not to say "my card is better than your card". A round that heavily relies on "card" after "card" has missed the mark of what debate is about.

Robert Nesbit Paradigm

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Shawn Nix Paradigm

I have judged debate since 2001. Since 2014, I have coached Public Forum and Speech events and am the current Co-Director of Speech and Debate at Cary Academy in North Carolina.

DEBATE: In debate (LD/PF) I look for clear claims, evidence and links to logical, clear impacts. I flow each round and look for you to bring your arguments through the round, tell me the clash and how I should weigh the round. Speed speaking isn't real world and I won't flow what I have to work too hard to follow. Asking for evidence for common sense issues won't count either. I look for logical links to impact, clear organized argumentation that tells me how to vote. You can use flow jargon, but tell me why. You want me to flow across the round? cross apply? for instance, tell me why. Secondly, don't exaggerate your evidence, I used to be a little more laid back about that but no more. If it is challenged and you made it up or exaggerated it, I likely won't pick you up no matter how great a speaker you are. Finally, I'm not here to show you how smart or clever I am. AND Two things - 1.) do a kritik and you are likely going to lose because you failed to acknowledge that ideas can conflict and are worthy of discussion and 2.) "the tech over truthers" and other silly judging paradigms doesn't make you a more articulate conveyor of ideas after you leave high school, so don't look for me to pick you up there either. I will know the topic, but judge like a lay judge. Convince me. Have fun and enjoy the activity!

For Speech events. I am always enthusiastic about great cutting and a good story in interp. I want to see differentiated characters in a setting I can imagine. In platform events, great organization is invaluable. During competition, show me you believe what you are telling me! I want legitimate solutions that are concrete and well researched. Also, platform is 50% presentaton and 50% content for me. If I can find all of the evidence and analysis for your speech on the first page of Google, you won't get first no matter how amazing you are as a presenter.

CONGRESS: Well researched unique takes on a resolution is important. Simple stock arguments and analysis is easy. I look for you to look deeper into the consequences/outcome of passage. I hate rehash, not only is it boring but it suggests you needed to listen more closely. I'll mark that against you. Refutation of previous speeches shows careful analysis in the moment and it shows you have more than your case you wrote the night before. Presentation is also important. I don't like BS for the sake of being a good presenter but a balance of solid research, thoughtful analysis, ambitious and relevant refutation from a persuasive speaker.

James Nycz Paradigm

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Laura O'Brien Paradigm

I am a parent judge. Although I have judged before and have a very basic understanding of flowing, please do not speak too quickly or use jargon.

I value a clear narrative. You should have a clear extension of your argument through round that really expresses the significance of what you are arguing.

Implicate turns and defense! Tell me how your responses are relevant to the round. Warrants are more important than cards.

Please weigh!

Have fun :)

Jim Poyner Paradigm

I describe myself as a "flay" judge. I flow a round but I rarely base my decision solely on flow. If a team misses a response to a point, I don't penalize that team if the drop concerned a contention that either proves unimportant in the debate or is not extended with weighing. I have come to appreciate summaries and final focuses that are similar, that both weigh a team's contentions as well as cover key attacks. I like to hear clear links of evidence to contentions and logical impacts, not just a firehose of data. I prefer hard facts over opinion whenever possible, actual examples over speculation about the future.

I ABSOLUTELY DEMAND CIVILITY IN CROSSFIRES! Ask your question then allow the other side to answer COMPLETELY before you respond further. Hogging the clock is frowned upon. It guarantees you a 24 on speaker points. Outright snarkiness or rudeness could result in a 0 for speaker points. Purposely misconstruing the other side's evidence in order to force that team to waste precious time clarifying is frowned upon. Though I award very few 30s on speaker points, I very much appreciate clear, eloquent speech, which will make your case more persuasive.

I have seen a trend to turn summaries into second rebuttals. I HATE THIS. A summary should extend key offense from case and key defense from rebuttal then weigh impacts. You cannot do this in only two minutes if you burn up more than a minute trying to frontline. If I don't hear something from case in summary you will lose most definitely. Contrary to growing belief, the point of this event is NOT TO WIN ON THE FLOW. The point is to research and put forth the best warrants and evidence possible that stand up to rebuttal.

When calling cards, avoid distracting "dumps" aimed at preoccupying the other side and preventing them from prepping. In recent tournaments I have seen a rise in the inability of a team to produce a requested card QUICKLY. I will give you a couple of minutes at most then we will move on and your evidence likely will be dropped from the flow. The point is to have your key cards at the ready, preferably in PDF form. I have also seen a recent increase in badly misconstrued data or horrifically out of date data. The rules say full citation plus the date must be given. If you get caught taking key evidence out of context, you're probably going to lose. If you can't produce evidence that you hinge your entire argument on, you will definitely lose.

The bottom line is: Use your well-organized data and logic to win the debate, not cynical tactics aimed at distraction or clock dominance.

Seema Razdan Paradigm

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Bryan Supran Paradigm

Lay judge who votes on quality and weighing of arguments.

Don't go tech, but I can deal with complex arguments if explained well.

Be polite to you opponents. Snide or disparaging remarks are not appreciated. Debating is more than arguing.

I will call cards myself if something sounds wrong. If you deliberately misuse evidence, it will undermine your credibility overall with me in the round.

Ryan J Swartz Paradigm

Presentation Matters: Do not spread your case (or rebuttals). If I can't hear or understand your arguments, then they have no impact.

No Round Disclosures.

No Oral Critiques.

Greg Titman Paradigm

I have been judging/coaching debate since 2012. In high school, I competed in Extemporaneous Speaking and dabbled a handful of times in Public Forum Debate (referred to as Ted Turner Debate at the time). Because of my background in speech, delivery remains an important factor in my decision in so far as I must be able to understand the arguments that you are presenting. In other words, do NOT spread! To me, spreading is antithetical to effective communication, which is ultimately the reason we are here - to communicate arguments for or against a proposed resolution.

I subscribe to the school of thought that Public Forum is intended to be a lay person's debate in that anybody, regardless of their background knowledge on the subject matter or debate experience, should be able to sit-in on a round and follow each side's argumentation. As it was once explained to me, your grandmother should be able to listen to your case/speech and understand what you are saying.

An effective argument consists of three key components: a claim, a warrant, and an impact (STATE It, SUPPORT It, EXPLAIN It). An emphasis on any one of these facets at the exclusion of the others results in an incomplete argument. You can't win a debate with incomplete arguments! I say all this because over the past 6 years of coaching I have witnessed a shift in emphasis away from holistic argumentation to an over-reliance upon evidence. Sure, evidence is important, but far too many debates that I've judged have devolved into a clash over whose evidence is superior or who has provided a greater quantity. As British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli once claimed, "There are three kinds of lies: lies, damned lies, and statistics." Use evidence to support your contentions and your rebuttals, but also provide an explanation as to how it links back into the bigger picture argument that you are trying to make. Logic can be just as effective a tool in a debate as qualitative and quantitative evidence.

In terms of the logistics for the round:

- "Off-time road-maps" are fine, but should be brief.
- You may time yourself, but my timer is the official time piece for the round.
- Individual crossfires should be standing. Grand crossfire can be seated or standing (debaters' discretion).
- Rarely, if ever, should you need to ask to see the opponent's evidence (see comments above). Teams use this as a tactic for gaining additional prep time while their opponent finds the card/original source. If you ask to see the opponents' evidence, it will count against your prep time, even while they are locating it. With that being said, each team should have their evidence (card and original source) readily available to produce should it be requested by the opponent.

Jason Wang Paradigm

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Heng Wang Paradigm

The Guide to Public Forum Debate stresses remarkably that speakers must appeal to the widest possible audience through sound reasoning, succinct organization, credible evidence, and clear delivery. I really resonate to this statement thus have my preferences below.

Normal speed: Please don't speak too fast. If you believe you have to speak fast or you cannot complete your messages in time, you need to cut your contents to make your messages concise.

Straightforward:Please express yourself in natural way to be understood.

Clear structure: Please integrate all of your points and keep them consistent through the entire session.

Have a fun!

( I am a lay judge.)

Katelynn Warmblod Paradigm

I have high school extemp. experience and college parli debate experience.

Basic round guidelines:

-General courtesy towards other debaters. No personal attacks. Good sportsmanship greatly appreciated before, during, and after rounds.

-Be careful about making large scale claims about minority/marginalized groups, arguments need to be more general (i.e. people in x situation generally do y. NOT this group does y in x situation.). In my mind this is the easiest way to create a friendly and educational environment that doesn't exclude people or make them uncomfortable.


-Heavier on content than delivery, but delivery must be understandable, (i.e. slow enough to understand, If you do spread, I'll do my best to flow and follow the speech but if it's too fast, the arguments get dropped) have a sense of clarity, and some composure.

-Round clash is important

-Don't just read off the stats and references, make me care. Otherwise the numbers fall short.

Post Round:

-I will always be willing to give some form of feedback after the round if you ask. Depending on the time constraint, I will give a general round overview, key details that stood out, and/or answer any questions you may have.

-Post-rounding me will not change my mind.

Lucy Wu Paradigm

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