Greenhill Fall Classic

2018 — Dallas, TX/US

Shreya Agarwala Paradigm

8 rounds

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Miha Andric Paradigm

8 rounds

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Sandy Berkowitz Paradigm

Revised April 11, 2018

Sandy Berkowitz

The Blake School (Minneapolis, MN), where I teach communication and coach Public Forum, World Schools, Policy, and Congressional Debate. I also coach the USA Development Team and Team USA in World Schools Debate.

I debated policy in high school and college and began coaching in the early 1980s. In addition to the events listed above, I have coached and judged Lincoln Douglas, Extemp, Oratory, Rhetorical Criticism/Great Speeches, Informative, Discussion, and (and to a lesser extent) Interp events, at variety of schools in IL, NY, NC, MN, MI, ME, and CA.

Public Forum

Fundamentally, I believe that PF provides debaters with opportunities to engage and debate key issues of the day before experienced debate and community judges. It is useful and important to understand and adapt to a judge’s preferences. So, for me:

General issues

--The crux of PF is good solid argumentation delivered well. Solid arguments are those that relate to the resolution, are well organized, well warranted, and supported with quality evidence that is explained.

--Good analytical arguments are useful but not normally sufficient. If you make an argument, you bear the responsibility of supporting, explaining, and weighing the argument.

--I flow. But, clarity is your responsibility and is key to a good debate.

Evidence Ethics

--Evidence is critical to building good arguments and that includes warrants. Use academically rigorous and journalistic sources to support your arguments. Offering a laundry list of 5-10 names with few warrants or methodology is not persuasive.

--Proper citation is essential. That does not mean “University X” says. A university did not do the study or write the article. Someone did. Source name and date is required for oral source citation. Providing qualifications orally can definitely enhance the clarity and persuasiveness of your argument. The complete written citation (including source name, date, source, title, access date, url, quals, and page numbers) must be provided when asked in the round.

--Exchange of evidence is mandatory when requested. There is not infinite prep time to find evidence. If it takes you more than a minute to find a card when asked, or all you can provide is a 50 page pdf, then I will disregard it.

--Paraphrasing is not as persuasive as reading cards and using the evidence appropriately to develop and deepen your arguments.

--If you have misconstrued evidence, your entire argument can be disregarded.

--Evaluate your own and your opponents’ evidence as part of your comparative analysis.

Strategic issues

--Extending arguments goes beyond authors and tag lines. Extend and develop the arguments.

--Narrative is key. Debate is inherently persuasive. Connect the arguments and tell a story.

--It is in the best interest of the second speaking team for the rebuttalist to rebuild their case. If the 2nd speaking team does not do that, they likely yield the strategic advantage to the 1st speaking team.

--Avoid Grand becoming yelling match, which is not useful to anyone.

--Clash is critical. It is vital to weigh your arguments, which is best to begin before the final focus. Write the ballot in the final focus.

Delivery and Decorum

--PF, and all debate, is inherently a communication activity. Speed is fine, but clarity is absolutely necessary. If you unclear or blippy, you do so at your own peril.

--Be smart. Be assertive. Be engaging. But, do not be a bully.

--Racist, xenophobic, sexist, classist, homophobic, transphobic, ableist, and other oppressive discourses or examples have no place in debate.

Finally, have fun and enjoy the opportunity for engagement on important questions of the day.

World Schools

Worlds is an exciting debate format that is different from other US debate and speech formats. It is important for you to understand and adapt to the different assumptions and styles of Worlds. Content (the interpretation of the motion [definitions, model, stance], arguments, analysis, and examples), Style (verbal and nonverbal presentation elements), and Strategy (organization, decision making, engagement, and time allocation) all factor in to the decision and should be seen as critical and interrelated areas. Some things to consider:

--As Aristotle noted, we are influenced by both logos and pathos appeals, which you should develop through both examples and analysis. Thus, narratives are critical. Not just a story to “put a face on the motion,” but an overall narrative for your side of the debate.

--Motions are, in most cases, internationally, globally focused and your examples and analysis should reflect that.

--Have multiple, varied, and international examples that are used not only in the first speeches, but are also developed further and added in the second and third speeches to be more persuasive.

--Racist, xenophobic, sexist, classist, homophobic, transphobic, ableist, and other oppressive discourses or examples have no place in debate.

--POIs can be statements or questions and are a key element of engagement during the debate. Questioners should be strategic in what to pose and when. Speakers should purposefully choose to take POIs and smartly respond to them. Typically, speakers will take 1-2 questions per constructive speech, but that is the speaker’s strategic choice.

--Importantly, carry things down the bench. Answer the arguments of the other side. Rebuild and develop your arguments. Engage in comparative analysis.

--Third speeches should focus the debate around clash points or key questions or key issues. Narrow the debate and offer comparative analysis.

--Reply speeches should not include new arguments. But, the speech should build on the third speech (especially in the opp block), identify key voting issues, and explain why your side has won the debate.

Be smart. Be articulate. Be persuasive. Take the opportunity to get to know other teams and debaters.

Policy and LD

I judge mostly PF and World Schools. But, I have continued to judge a smattering of Policy and LD rounds over the last few years. Now that you may be concerned, let me be specific.

Overall, I believe that rounds should be judged based upon the arguments presented.

--Clarity is paramount. Obviously, my pen time is slower than it was, but I do flow well. Roadmaps are good. Sign posting and differentiating arguments is necessary. Watch me. Listen. You will be able to tell if you are going too fast or are unclear. Reasonably clear speed is ok, but clarity is key. For most of my career, I was a college professor of communication; now I teach communication in high school. I strongly believe that debaters should be able to communicate well.

--Do what you do best: policy based or critical affs are fine. But, remember, I do not hear a lot of policy or LD rounds, so explain and be clear. Having said that, my area of research as a comm professor was primarily from a feminist critical rhetorical perspective. In any case, you bear the responsibility to explain and weigh arguments, assumptions, methodology, etc. without a lot of unexplained theory/jargon.

--Please do not get mired in debate theory. Topicality, for example, was around when I debated. But, for other, new or unique theory arguments, do not assume that I have current knowledge of the assumptions or standards of the theory positions. It is your responsibility to explain, apply, and weigh in theory debates. On Framework, please engage the substance of the aff. I strongly prefer you engage the methodology and arguments of the aff, rather than default to framework arguments to avoid that discussion.

--Racist, xenophobic, sexist, classist, homophobic, transphobic, ableist, and other oppressive discourses or examples have no place in debate.

--Last, and importantly, weigh your arguments. It is your job to put the round together for me. Tell a good story, which means incorporating the evidence and arguments into a narrative. And, weigh the issues. If you do not, at least one team will be unhappy with the results if I must intervene.

Finally, I believe that Policy and LD debate is significantly about critical thinking and engagement. Better debaters are those who engage arguments, partners, opponents, and judges critically and civilly. Be polite, smart, and even assertive, but don’t be impolite or a bully. And, have fun since debate should be fun.

Jane Boyd Paradigm

Jane Boyd

School: Grapevine HS

Number of years coaching CX: 31 LD: 27

Number of years coaching speech and debate: 31

LD:

What many think is progressive debate was done originally in 98-99 by Grapevine Debaters. We just did it better. Good debate is good debate. Keep in mind that trying to be cutting edge does NOT make for good debate by itself. While I appreciate innovation - I hate tricks for the sake of tricks. Keep that in mind.

 

Framework/Values/Criteria/Standards/Burdens

Standards, criteria, framework and/or burdens serve as the same thing - these are mechanisms on how to determine who wins the debate. If a value is used it needs to be defended throughout the case and not simply an after thought. The framework of the debate should not be longer than the rest of the case. Unless it is absolutely necessary to make the framework clear, cut to the chase and tell me what is acceptable and not acceptable, but don't spend 2 1/2 minutes on something that should take just a few sentences to make clear. I want to hear substantive debate on the topic not excessive framework or theory. Note the word excessive. I am not stupid and usually get it much quicker than you think. In the debate resolve the issue of standard and link it to the substantative issues of the round then move on.

Evidence and Basic Argumentation:

Evidence adds credibility to the arguments of the case however I don't want to just hear you cite sources without argumentation and analysis of how it applies to the clash in the debate. I don't like arguments that are meant to confuse and say absolutely nothing of substantive value. I am fine with philosophy but expect that you are able to explain and understand the philosophies that you are applying to your case or arguments. A Kritik is nothing new in LD. Traditional LD by nature is prefiat, but I recognize the change that has occurred. I accept plans, DAs, counterplans and theory (when there is a violation - not as the standard strategy.) Theory, plans, and counterplans must be run correctly - so make sure you know how to do it before you run it in front of me.

Flow and Voters:

I think that the AR has a very difficult job and can often save time by grouping and cross-applying arguments, please make sure you are clearly showing me on the flow where you are applying your arguments. I won't cross apply an argument to the flow if you don't tell me to. I try not to intervene in the debate and only judge based upon what you are telling me and where you are telling me to apply it. Please give voters; however don't give 5 or 6. You should be able to narrow the debate down to the critical areas. If an argument is dropped, then make sure to explain the importance or relevance of that argument don't just give me the "it was dropped so I win argument." I may not buy that it is an important argument; you have to tell me why it is important in this debate.

Presentation:

I can flow very well. Speed isn't a problem, it is usually clarity that is the problem. Unless words are clear I won't flow the debate. If I am not writing then you probably need to adapt. Speed for the sake of speed is not a good idea.

Kritiks:

I have been around long enough to have seen the genesis of Kritik arguments. I have seen them go from bad to worse, to good in policy. I think that K arguments are in the worse state in LD now. Kritiking is absolutely acceptable IF it applies to the resolution and specifically the case being run in the round. I have the same expectation here as in policy the "K" MUST have a specific link. "K" arguments MUST link directly to what is happening in THIS round with THIS resolution. I am NOT a fan of a generic Kritik that questions if we exist or not and has nothing to do with the resolution or debate at hand. Kritiks must give an alternative other than "think about it." Most LD is asking me to take an action with a plan or an objective - a K needs to do the same thing. That being said, I will listen to the arguments but I have a very high threshold for the bearer to meet before I will vote on a "K" in LD.

Theory:

I have a very high threshold of acceptance of theory in LD. There must be a clear abuse story. Also, coming from a policy background - it is essential to run the argument correctly. For example having a violation, interpretation, standards, and voting issues on a Topicality violation is important. Also knowing the difference in topicality and extra-topical. or knowing what non-unique really means is important. Theory for the sake of a time suck is silly and won't lead me voting on it at the end. I want to hear substantive debate on the topic not just generic framework or theory. RVI's: Not a fan. Congratulations you are topical or met a minimum of your burden I guess? It's not a reason for me to vote though unless you have a compelling reason why.

Courtney Coffman Paradigm

Berkeley 2019 Update: I haven't judge a lot of circuit LD rounds this year. I've been judging a lot of World Schools Debate. Please don't go your top speed and please slow down on tags & author names.


Background: I'm the Director of Debate at Northland Christian School in Houston, TX. I graduated in 2008 after debating for three years on the national and local circuits (TOC, NFL, TFA). I was a "traditional" debater whenever I competed (stock and policy arguments, etc). I have taught at Global Debate Symposium, Mean Green Workshops and Pinnacle.

Email Chain: Please add me to the email chain: court715@gmail.com.


Judging Philosophy: I prefer a comparative worlds debate. When making my decisions, I rely heavily on good extensions and weighing. If you aren't telling me how arguments interact with each other, I have to decide how they do. If an argument is really important to you, make sure you're making solid extensions that link back to some standard in the round. I love counterplans, disads, plans, etc. I believe there needs to be some sort of standard in the round. Kritiks are fine, but I am not well-versed in dense K literature; please make sure you are explaining the links so it is easy for me to follow.

Theory: I think running theory is fine (and encouraged) if there is clear abuse.


Speaker Points: I give out speaker points based on a couple of things: clarity (both in speed and pronunciation), word economy, strategy and attitude. In saying attitude, I simply mean don't be rude. I think there's a fine line between being perceptually dominating in the round and being rude for the sake of being rude; so please, be polite to each other because that will make me happy. Being perceptually dominant is okay, but be respectful. If you give an overview in a round that is really fast with a lot of layers, I will want to give you better speaks. I will gauge my points based on what kind of tournament I'm at...getting a 30 at a Houston local is really easy, getting a 30 at a circuit tournament is much more difficult. If I think you should break, you'll get good speaks.

Speed: I'd prefer a more moderate/slower debate that talks about substance than a round that is crazy fast/not about the topic. I can keep up with a moderate speed; slow down on tag lines/author names. I'll put my pen down if you're going too fast. If I can't flow it, I won't vote on it. Also, if you are going fast, an overview/big picture discussion before you go line by line in rebuttals is appreciated. You can consider me a 7 out of 10 on the speed scale. I will say "clear" "slow" "louder", etc a few times throughout the round. If you don't change anything I will stop saying it.

Miscellaneous: I think permissibility and skep. arguments are defense and don't prefer to see them in a round. I default to comparative worlds.

Other things...
1. Don't try to win on tricks...I will severely dock speaker points and just be generally sad when making a decision (aka don't mislabel arguments, give your opponent things out of order, or try to steal speech/prep time, etc). I am not going to vote on an extension of a one sentence "argument" that wasn't clear in the first speech that is extended to mean something very different.
2. Please don't run morally repugnant positions in front of me.
3. Have fun!


Danny DeBois Paradigm

Harvard '18; Harrison '14

I debated for Harrison on the national circuit. I used to coach and judge pretty frequently, but have become pretty inactive since 2016.

I have a high threshold for clarity, and I will drop you if I have to keep calling clear--I will not let you just re-explain things in later speeches. Be careful with new literature and debate strategies--I am happy and interested to hear them, but I am likely unfamiliar with them and will be hearing them for the first time when you read them. That means you need to be slower, not just what you think is clear.

I care much less about the types of arguments you run and much more about the way you run them--be clear, crystallize well, and clash with your opponent. I will vote on anything that has a claim, warrant, and impact, so long as it is not morally repugnant. That being said, I will be much happier with and give higher speaks to debaters who debate the topic and/or show creative, independent thinking. Perceptual dominance, making an attempt at being persuasive, and being kind and respectful will also be good for your speaks.

Ask me about any other specifics before the round.

Nicky Halterman Paradigm

8 rounds

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Mitali Mathur Paradigm

*UPDATE: I haven't judged a debate in a year, so go a little slower please

About me

I debated for Greenhill School for 4 years
I also was a member of USA Debate for a year
I currently attend Georgetown University

General Comments

  • OVERVIEW STUFF:
    • I view rounds through a comparative worlds paradigm.
    • Don’t be racist/sexist/homophobic/unnecessarily rude in round or ever.
    • Give your opponent a copy of your case if they ask – printed, flashed, e-mailed, or via a viewing laptop - this could affect speaks if your opponent asks and you say no
  • THINGS I LIKE:
    • when you talk about the topic
    • when you make your advocacy clear and aren't shifty
    • when you talk about real world issues
    • overviews that explain how I should evaluate the round/prioritize issues
    • weighing with explanation, not just the jargon of magnitude, probability etc.
    • Extensions– I think 1ARs can have a bit more leeway, but make sure warrants and impacts are clear – author names alone don’t cut it
    • A good CX. CX is binding and I’ll pay attention.
  • THINGS I DISLIKE:
    • racist/sexist/homophobic/classist/offensive arguments and comments
    • arguments that say any action is permissible
    • too many spikes or really long underviews that aren’t related to the topic. If you are aff and concerned about a side bias, write an aff that uses the entire 6 minutes with substantive arguments
    • misrepresenting evidence and reading strawperson cards. If there is an evidence ethics challenge, I will read the article and the piece of evidence in question. If you make the challenge, you are staking the round on it.
  • SPEED:
    • Go as fast as you want but don’t sacrifice clarity
    • Please slow down for interpretations and advocacy texts
    • Slow down for spikes/underview type stuff


Framework
I never was a framework debater myself. But, if you are a framework debater, don’t shy away from your strengths in front of me, just be extra clear and do a lot of interaction and weighing if it's a more complex framework and it should be fine.

Case Debate
Totally fine. A framework is just a way to evaluate what impacts matter. Tell me what impacts matter and what piece of offense applies under that.

Policy Args
Love them

  • COUNTERPLANS
    • I love a well thought out CP
    • I'm fine with PICs as well
    • When you debate CPs, make at least one cleverly worded perm and explain how the perm functions (solves all offense, mitigates the link to the disad etc.)
  • DISADS
    • make sure there is real uniqueness!!!!
    • specific links based on specific affs will make me like you more
  • Ks
    • I prefer specific links over general links that can be re-used
    • Make sure you can defend the alternative and can EXPLAIN what it means
    • I’m fine if you have a role of the ballot/role of the judge – but if there is a counter ROB/ROJ, do some weighing


Theory

  • For me, fairness is not a terminal impact, but it is an internal link to other impacts that are important
  • There is no “spirit of the interpretation,” there is just the interpretation
  • Don’t read stupid theory arguments over the smallest technicalities. I’ll be expressive so you can tell what I consider to be reasonable. I’ll evaluate it, but your opponent won’t have a high threshold answering it.


Topicality

  • T is determined through the plan text.
  • A good T argument should have a specific interpretation and carded evidence
  • I’ll be impressed if you answer T with specific, carded evidence and do some weighing

Nikhil Ramaswamy Paradigm

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Aditya Shekhar Paradigm

TL;DR: I vote for the team/debater that did the better debating :)

Hello There! First off, thank you so much for checking out my paradigm (kudos!). I'm an assistant coach for The Blake School, and I debated for four years at Blake, during which time I found decent success on the national circuit in Public Forum, Congressional Debate, Extemporaneous Speaking, and World School’s Debate. I’ve dabbled in Policy and LD and have a working understanding of the events and its arguments. My paradigms are event-specific, meaning that I’m looking for different things in different events, but I fundamentally believe there are certain principles that apply, regardless of format.

General Comments:

  • Don’t just tell me your arguments, explain why they matter within the context of the debate round and keep your impacts

  • What’s important to you isn’t always important to me - avoid uncertainty: tell me what to weigh and why

  • Don’t live in the vacuum of only your argumentative side - compare and weigh them against those of your opponents

  • I’ll vote off of literally anything, so be creative and make sure you can defend your position passionately and authentically

  • Debate isn’t just about arguments (granted they are super important), but how well you can communicate them under a variety of situations - good stylistic ability isn’t a must, but can help tremendously

  • The ballot of almost any format of debate asks the judge to vote for the team that did the better debating: do the better debating and make my job easy!

  • Evidence isn’t everything, give its context, establish its credibility, and tell me why it changes how I should view/look at the resolution/bill/motion

Congressional Debate:

I don’t really have any argumentative specifics. In Congressional debate, be memorable, distinguish yourself from your peers through your collaboration and debate. Think: be better than everyone else before making everyone look worse.

  • Be memorable: tasteful humor, unique stylistic choices, rhetorical flourishes

  • Include other speakers in your speeches

  • Be creative with argumentation: we’re simulating policymakers thinking about the best wishes for their constituents, offer counterplans, counter solutions, anything that can make the world a better place on the neg

  • It’s the Aff’s job to make the world a better place with the bill, and it’s the Neg’s job to tell me why the particular solution the Aff is advocating for won’t or (bonus points) make the world a uniquely worse place

Public Forum Debate:

In Public Forum, I would consider myself more of a “circuit judge” in the sense that I’m more open to speed, more complicated arguments, and thorough impact analysis. I try and weigh whatever you give me as debaters, whether that be an advocacy, big-ticket impacts, or just better argumentation. I don’t have too many specifics, but I do like to see clear extensions of impacts - clear impact analysis and weighing wins rounds!

  • 2nd Rebuttal should begin rebuilding

  • Impacts are the name of the game!

  • Keep CF civil and cordial

  • I’ll absolutely listen to theory, but keep it relevant and to the point

World School’s Debate

In all honesty, I go back and forth on how to best judge this event. I suppose my judging style will change depending on the tournament I’m at. With an international field and judging pool, I’m significantly more likely to view the round under the three areas that debaters are graded upon: style, content, and strategy. With a more US-centric judging pool and argumentation style, I’ll be voting more off of the arguments themselves and more receptive to US jargon and argument structure.

  • Case should go 2-1 (with two substantives in the first and one in the second)

  • Refutation should begin with the 1st Opp

  • Team Cohesion and Extensions “down the bench” is always helpful

  • Sufficient defense as to make me not want to vote for the Prop stance is a compelling reason for me to vote Opp

  • 3rd should be comparative of big voting issues as opposed to line-by-line

Policy Debate:

I approach the debate however you want me to: policy maker, hypothesis tester, games player, etc. I try and be as tabula rasa as possible - letting the arguments speak for themselves, but given I’m only mortal, that can’t always be the case. I prefer email chains, unless circumstances don’t allow it. I’m not the fastest judge you’ll ever have, so don’t go in ‘guns blazin’ - watch me and see if I can keep up. This section of my paradigm is the shortest: deliberately. Simply put: you debate how you want to debate and I’ll judge how you want me to judge.



Extemporaneous Speaking:

Think of this event like you’re giving a persuasive school essay out loud. To that end, I’m kinda like that cool teacher who’s totally ok with humor, esoteric references, and wacky metaphors. Extemp is like that, but more of having a conversation. Basically, be verbally fluent, succinct and clear in communicating your points across, don’t underdo/overdo gestures (they help get your point across up to a point when they become distracting), and keep things informative!




Jacek Stachowiak Paradigm

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Shane Stafford Paradigm

8 rounds

The Blake School (Minneapolis, MN) I am the director of debate where I teach communication and coach Public Forum, World Schools, Policy, and Congressional Debate. I also coach the USA Development Team and Team USA in World Schools Debate.

Public Forum

Fundamentally, I believe that PF provides debaters with opportunities to engage and debate key issues of the day before experienced debate and community judges. It is useful and important to understand and adapt to a judge’s preferences. So, for me:

General issues

--The crux of PF is good solid argumentation delivered well. Solid arguments are those that relate to the resolution, are well organized, well warranted, and supported with quality evidence that is explained.

--Good analytical arguments are useful but not normally sufficient. If you make an argument, you bear the responsibility of supporting, explaining, and weighing the argument.

--I flow. But, clarity is your responsibility and is key to a good debate.

Evidence Ethics

--Evidence is critical to building good arguments and that includes warrants. Use academically rigorous and journalistic sources to support your arguments. Offering a laundry list of 5-10 names with few warrants or methodology is not persuasive.

--Proper citation is essential. That does not mean “University X” says. A university did not do the study or write the article. Someone did. Source name and date is required for oral source citation. Providing qualifications orally can definitely enhance the clarity and persuasiveness of your argument. The complete written citation (including source name, date, source, title, access date, url, quals, and page numbers) must be provided when asked in the round.

--Exchange of evidence is mandatory when requested. There is not infinite prep time to find evidence. If it takes you more than a minute to find a card when asked, or all you can provide is a 50 page pdf, then I will disregard it.

--Paraphrasing is not as persuasive as reading cards and using the evidence appropriately to develop and deepen your arguments.

--If you have misconstrued evidence, your entire argument can be disregarded.

--Evaluate your own and your opponents’ evidence as part of your comparative analysis.

Strategic issues

--Extending arguments goes beyond authors and tag lines. Extend and develop the arguments.

--Narrative is key. Debate is inherently persuasive. Connect the arguments and tell a story.

--It is in the best interest of the second speaking team for the rebuttalist to rebuild their case. If the 2nd speaking team does not do that, they likely yield the strategic advantage to the 1st speaking team.

--Avoid Grand becoming yelling match, which is not useful to anyone.

--Clash is critical. It is vital to weigh your arguments, which is best to begin before the final focus. Write the ballot in the final focus.

Delivery and Decorum

--PF, and all debate, is inherently a communication activity. Speed is fine, but clarity is absolutely necessary. If you unclear or blippy, you do so at your own peril.

--Be smart. Be assertive. Be engaging. But, do not be a bully.

--Racist, xenophobic, sexist, classist, homophobic, transphobic, ableist, and other oppressive discourses or examples have no place in debate.

Finally, have fun and enjoy the opportunity for engagement on important questions of the day.

James Stuckert Paradigm

I sort of debated PF for a year and LD for three years for Strake Jesuit. I qualified for TFA State and TOC in LD, and I have instructed at TDC and NSD. I am conflicted with Strake Jesuit and Walt Whitman. Contact me/add me to docs at jpstuckert@gmail.com

· I like to think my preferences are highly flexible. I am generally fine with debaters doing whatever they want in the round, and if two debaters seem to implicitly agree on a point I will take that as an assumption even if it isn’t explicitly warranted (e.g. both debaters implicitly assuming competing interps on theory or something like that).

· That being said, I will not allow the following things when deciding a round:

o Going back on an agreement made in CX – obviously you can change your mind within a few seconds if you misspoke or make a point to clarify something later but once CX is over if you’ve taken a clear stance on something you’re stuck with it.

o Reversing a stance from an earlier speech without conceding responses to that stance. E.g. you can’t go back on weighing arguments you made if they have been conceded. Of course, you can kick conditional advocacies if you want to and your opponent hasn’t made condo bad arguments.

o New arguments in later speeches which are not responses or extensions. This includes extending an argument which was not in your previous speech but was made in a speech before that. Sometimes new weighing or extending something that you forgot to extend is necessary to resolve an irresolvable flow, but I’ll be unhappy about it.

o Arguments that say I should not select one winning side and one losing side on the ballot for myself. This includes arguments that say you get to steal the ballot and sign it yourself (ballots aren’t even paper anymore so idk how you’d do that), or arguments for double wins or double loses. (You can tell me to give higher or lower speaks, but I’ll most likely ignore you and do my own thing.)

o An argument with a premise which is supposed to be confidential to me as a judge. The main example of this would be references to strike sheets or prefs.

· Other things about me:

o I place a greater weight on CX than most experienced judges. I typically flow it, I am strict about not letting you reverse a position you took in CX, and it weighs heavily determining speaks. However, arguments cannot be extended out of CX – you must make them in speeches.

o I determine speaker points with equal weight on each speech including CX. The two factors I care about the most are strategy and the quality/creativity of arguments. Spelled out positional arguments tend to make me happier than blippy arguments, but I am fine with blips as a strategic choice.

o All else equal, I think topical affs are preferable to non-topical affs. But this is merely a personal preference – I will try and remain impartial in a debate with a non-topical aff.

o I remain agnostic about whether disclosure is a good or bad thing for the community. I will vote on disclosure theory; however, I am somewhat sympathetic to the notion that theory should only have in-round violations.

o I’m not sure why you’d want to read overtly offensive things, but I’ll be heavily biased against them. However, most of the time when debaters say offensive things it is unintentional and while they are trying to articulate a more nuanced view. I don’t think it’s prima facie offensive to read moral philosophy that denies some acts are intrinsically evil (like skep or strict ends-based ethical theories) or which denies that consequences are morally relevant (like strict means-based theories), but I will readily listen to Ks of these sorts of theories.

o Be polite to novices, even if you can win a round in 20 seconds it’s not always kind to do so. Just be aware of how your actions might make them feel.

o Avoid rhetorical appeals which aim to exclude particular styles or arguments. You can make arguments and engage in strategies which exclude these styles but respect that all types of debate carry some legitimacy (I don’t wanna hear references to “bad theory debaters” or “stupid analytic framework” or “annoying pre-fiat args”)

o When adjudicating framework debates I think that there are arguments which proactively show a framework to be false and arguments which are defense to specific warrants for a framework. This means if the reasons a framework is false “outweigh” the reasons a framework is true then the framework goes away. This is does not imply that I think framework debate is comparative; terminal defense can happen on both frameworks. If someone argues epistemic modesty or for a risk of offense model I will shift to that model.

o On theory I default to reasonability and drop the argument. The threshold is demonstrating abuse in round. Under reasonability my assumption is spirit of the interp, but if competing interps is justified I assume text. I also think it is at least conceptually possible for there to be terminal defense on a theory shell even under competing interps, but it’s probably a very rare occurrence.

Chuck Walts Paradigm

Years in Debate: 20+
Types of Debate: Policy, CEDA/NDT, NPDA/NPTE, LD, PFD, Worlds

Worlds:

I like Worlds. Worlds is what debate should be. I am an active judge in the sense that I do not respond well to two particular things. First, trying to import the argumentative method of other formats. Second, telling me that the other team didn't do X or Y so should lose. Of course I want you to point out deficiencies in the other team's tactics or strategy, but you also need a reason why you win!

Other than that, I do my best to look at the argument development in the debate and who best answers the question of the motion.



This is under revision.

I have noticed that I don't endorse technique over truth as much as my colleagues. This doesn't mean that I don't care about the structure of the debate. It means that just because an argument is dropped you don't automatically win.

1) I guess I am either suffering from hearing loss or people have become too unclear to flow, but I cannot understand your max speed. You must slow down for me. You don't have to be normal speed, but blowing through your underview of spikes at 400wpm means that I won't have much flowed and won't really be inclined to vote on those arguments.

2) You need to differentiate tags, cites and cards. A pause works, so does "end card" or "My next argument is.." If I can't figure out whats the words of an author and what are your words you're gonna have a bad time.

3) I would prefer it if I didn't hear performance or micropolitical arguments. Its not that I don't enjoy those items in my non-debate life, but in debate they tend to introduce a level of personal investment that I don't care to engage in.

4) I'm fine with policy arguments, traditional LD or whatever you want to call what you do as long as you can explain it to me. I do not enjoy "tricky" debate or other techniques that are premised on "You didn't answer this blip theory argument that says you have to answer it, I win." Will I vote for you if you do that, maybe, but your points will be low. I would prefer you to engage in an actual debate instead of a game of mistakes. I've heard many judges say that they reward technical debate, and they has its merits to an extent, but I tend to vote for arguments that are explained and warranted over arguments that simply exist and are extended on the flow.

5) I am more than happy to discuss my decision if time allows after the debate. I haven't shared speaker points in the past. As a norm, my range is 27-30.

6) I will not vote on 1AC spikes or underviews; abuse must occur and THEN you can make your theory arguments. I will not vote on disclosure theory good/bad at all.

Marna Weston Paradigm

Marna Weston (coached by Dale McCall at Twin Lakes High, WPB, FL)
State Champion, Lincoln Douglas Debate & NFL District Champion, Policy Debate (Florida)

TLDR

Condo is probably bad. I don't like tricks and rude stuff. I don't like people beating their opponents down in a disrespectful manner. True champions find a way to win with style, finesse, and some measure of grace. Basically, "say what you mean, and mean what you say" in front of me. Kick outs and shifts are not received well. I am comfortable with crystal clear debaters and crystal clear rebuttals. I've been focused on my policy teams this year, so I'm not familiar with the LD topic. I think there is still such a thing as an LD topic, although I keep hearing the same positions regardless of the topic a lot, and I guess that's ok. I am open to a lot of different types of discussions, and I'm excited to listen to what you bring to the debate space.

TOC Haiku:

Sacred space except

The room where we exchange thoughts

is not for condo

Full Paradigm:
Lincoln Douglas Paradigm (Scroll down to see my policy paradigm):

I guess the best statement I can make about typing a philosophy for a mutual judge preference list in Lincoln Douglas Debate is “I do not understand why this is needed.” My high school coach, Mrs. Dale McCall of Twin Lakes High in West Palm Beach, Florida and others contributed their ideas toward a new style of debate in the early 80’s where “superior speaking to lay audiences on a proposition of value” was envisioned. Any reasonable person without specialized knowledge of any kind would be a fitting judge or audience member in such a forum. That event was called Lincoln Douglas Debate. As a participant when LD was still an experimental event and the topics were chosen through individual tournament invitation, I debated in the final round of the Inaugural Lincoln Douglas Debate at the Barkley Forum in March 1983. In October 1981 a fellow teammate and I closed out the New York City Invitational at the Bronx High School of Science. My paradigm is and always has been, “be a high school Lincoln Douglas Debater”. Offer reasonable definitions (required), a value (required), and criteria as appropriate (probably optional, definitely debatable). Debate as if before a community group, and do not perform in such a way that would alienate reasonably intelligent people who have come to be both informed and entertained.


A good standard would be the “my principal” paradigm. If the principal of my school watched you debate and from your performance came to me on the Monday after your performance and said, “Mr. Weston, I am concerned that debate is confusing, exclusionary, and not an activity that is building critical thinking or communication skills for our students based on what I saw last weekend”, then you can be sure that you will have lost my ballot. Such a performance could endanger the existence of my program. My ballot acts as a defense from such examples gaining popularity. I believe enough loses might cause such practices to cease.


The “role of the ballot” and RFD when I am the critic will ideally be to honor the historic intent of the Lincoln Douglas event and those who worked so hard to bridge the debate world for general audiences, and not to exclude such persons. A rude debater can expect to lose “on face” absent any consideration of arguments withstanding in the round. The activity is about life and how one carries oneself.


Additionally, I shall not reward debaters with high speakers for “rolling over” opponents. One to six big ideas is probably the most I should hear in constructive speeches and these then boiled down to one to four critical voters at the end of the debate. “Drops” in LD are evaluated qualitatively, not quantitatively. It is certainly possible that “one big idea” could make many more ideas irrelevant to a decision, if argued effectively. A superior debater should be able to win the round with class while respecting the dignity of the opposition, in every instance. In short, any person coming into the round should be able to evaluate the round, and every person in the round must be treated in a dignified manner, either as a participant, observer, or critic.


Thank you for your interest in my thoughts.

Policy Paradigm

Updated 8/14/16

Overview: I firmly believe that policy debate is first and foremost a communication activity. Consequently, oral presentation plays a larger factor in my adjudication process than in most decisions in recent years. I focus on the “story” of the debate, but line-byline refutation can be a component of that. Know your order before you announce it. Don't change the order after you announce it. Clearly articulated arguments at any speed can be evaluated. Inarticulate utterings that cannot be understood cannot be evaluated. Be quick, but don't hurry. I will not tolerate rudeness. Cross X is binding.

My paradigm is one of few dispositions; the rest is up to the debaters. They are as follows:

1. I agree that conditionality is "probably" bad. So its "probably" not a bad idea to speak to this and support reasons why I might or might not vote on this.

2. Topical Counterplans are not OK. If at the end of the round I haave been effectiely persuaded there are two Affirmative teams, I'll probably vote Affirmative.

3. I prefer not to judge topicality debates. If you're ahead on it, explain to me why its important to care about this, or I might not understand why to vote on it.

4. I enjoy case debates. Solidly clear and irrefuably presented and reasonably current inherency evidence could really win a debate. No, really.

5. Kritikal arguments on both AFF and NEG are fine, but pay close attention to the way you communicate your position (clear and concise!).

6. The topic should be debated, but how you approach the resolution, and how you approach debate generally (content, style, etc.), should be left up to the debaters.

7. If you're Negative, show me how your approach is specific to this Affirmative. Be thoughtful in explaining what a vote for your side means and why I should endorse it.Ask meto vote for your side. Dont complete on-face grant the 1AC in favor of pre-set tangentially related points and expect me to get why that means the Negaative wins the debate. Be paricularly clear on fairness and why ground is or isnt lost and warrants a decision.These are usually not presented clearly and powerfully.

8. I will appreciate teams who competently deploy arguments from the earlier days of CEDA, such as Justification, Hasty G, etc. I also appreciate when the AFF and NEG teams sit on the correct sides of the room with respect to the judge. Otherwise, I might vote for someone but accidentally vote for the wrong team. "Sort of kidding" but I know this has happened to teams and that in my career in the activity, more than one judge thought they voted for a team, when they hadn't. If you're not on the proper side of the room, at least say in your speech which team you represent and why you think your side should win the debate. That is taken for granted a lot.:)

Public Forum Paradigm

Updated 8/14/16

To be truthful, it all goes by a little quickly for me in a PF round. I never competed in PF. The speeches are really short. I do appreciate the skills developed through the practice of concisely presenting so many arguments in a limited space of time. On a personal note, I thought the whole idea of yet another "policy is too fast and there is too much research" debate event, was that PF would remain slow for lay audiences. I have observed this is not the case, but good debates are still where you find them in PF--- as in Congress, Policy, LD, and Worlds. As such, please watch me closely and clearly indicate why as a judge I should prefer your way of evaluating the round over your opponents. I'm always pretty much up to speed on current events through working on Policy & Extemp each week of the season, so I'll probably be up to date on your issue. The key will be to express reasons to prefer your interpretation of what is important-------over what your opponent is saying. Whoever does that most effectively will likely win my ballot.

Best,

Marna Weston

George Whitford Paradigm

I debated at Polytechnic school from 2014-2018, qualifying to the TOC 3 times in Policy debate while being a 2N and 2A for an equal amount of time

Email: georgeedward.whitford@gmail.com

Short:

I mostly don't care what you run. I read K's for most of high school but exclusively read a policy aff my freshman and junior year. I think that gave me an understanding of both aff and neg policy arguments.

Extra thoughts:

K's

I like them, but you need to develop your arguments. I don't think its fair when K teams assert fully developed arguments and don't read cards, as the time pressure that comes with a card to back up the argument goes away. If you need a card read it or explain the argument. Otherwise, I will be extremely sympathetic to the 1ar

If you're gonna go the "read fewer cards in the block" strategy and develop arguments based on you're 1nc, have properly highlighted cards. (quality>quantity)


Answering Ks
things I like:

-Impact turns
-not extending the entirety of the 2ac
-world getting better


T vs Policy affs

I like T and went for it at points in my high school career, but I would be lying if I said I was good for T. But, I think I can handle it. Be clear when you read your standards.

If you meet, you meet.

K affs

- Framework vs K affs

Note: I read a K aff my sophomore year because I was genuinely interested in scholarship outside of resolutional debate. I read a K aff senior year because I was lazy and wanted the debates to be on my terms.

What I like:

Policy teams that understand impact turns and are dismissive of them for the right reason. "They say drone warfare DA but (proceed to read switch side block, TVA block, etc.)" will not work. That's a non-answer that lets the 1ar give a standup 1ar where they read their blocks to the Framework tricks everyone goes for and the same blocked out an extension of an impact turn (because you didn't answer the substance of the impact turn) and the result is a late-breaking debate where the framework team loses. Point out how stupid the impact turn beyond "this is not the university" and you will be much better off.

I enjoy procedural fairness arguments vs an Impact turn strategy, political arguments against "they foreclose our education." Procedural fairness works against the latter, it's just not as enjoyable.

Defending a K aff

What I like:
Impact turns that are really a reason any strict interpretation of debate is bad.

What I don't like:
wasting time on we meet arguments

DA's-

-Good link work ("There's no risk of a link insofar as there is literally no link")

-Quality of cards>quantity (full sentences within cards)

-good case work to make up for flaws with the DA

CP's-
I won't default to judge kick.

I don't have a preference, but if you're gonna cheat do not expect me to be on your side because of how much I enjoyed stealing affs.

Worlds:

More than anything else, I care about a team being able to explain why their arguments warrant them receiving a ballot by the end of the round. My frustration with formats like worlds is when people think that being persuasive means you don't explain anything. If I can't explain to myself at the end of the round why one team won, don't be shocked when I give an unsatisfactory decision (especially if your prop).

Speaker points:

If you introduce yourself in a speech, your points will suffer.

Clarity>>>>

I will give you perfect speaker points if you give your speech in iambic pentameter or as if there's music playing loudly in the room (the whole speech)

Ed Williams Paradigm

I will listen to most arguments. I have problems with most theory arguments in LD. Topicality is like the death penalty so I proceed with care. I understand policy arguments and kritiks. I flow most of the time. If you have questions about what I think about your arguments you should ask. 

I believe debaters should be civil to each other. I would prefer that high school students not use foul language in debates. 

I am ok with performance debates. I do believe the teams should engage the topic. If a team chooses not to engage the topic, then I will give the other team leeway to deal with the lack of engagement.

Reverse voting issues do not make sense in most instances. 

I am ok with counterplans and disadvantages.

I will vote for the team that makes the most sense at the end of the debate.